📘 قراءة كتاب Immunity to Parasites أونلاين
Most of the geological research is related to the study of rocks, as rocks are the main record of the geological history of the earth, because rocks are the basic unit in building the earth as they consist of formations containing a group of minerals found in nature, and are an essential part in the composition of the Earth's crust. Thus, the rock has a distinctive feature that separates it from another rock and makes it a self-contained unit. Just as rock is the basic unit of building the earth, the metal is the unit of rock itself. Rocks differ from each other in terms of the types of minerals forming them and the relationship of these minerals to each other in one rock. There are three types of rocks which are igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. There are environmental processes that affect the rocks that change the type of rock from fiery to mutant or vice versa. , Or from sedimentary to fiery or vice versa, or from metamorphosed to sedimentary or vice versa; these processes are known as rocky cycle.
Geologists also study non-hardening materials which are loose materials whose sizes vary between clay and sand gravel. The groundwater can travel between its grains for distances that vary with the size of the grains of the soil, and the study of loose materials is known as the study of the quaternary age and this study includes sedimentology and earth morphology And ancient climatology.
There is a close relationship between the movement of the plates on the surface and the convection currents of the mantle (which is the transfer of heat resulting from the bulk movement of the molecules inside the fluid). In addition, the plates of the oceans move in the same direction as the convection currents aligned with the mantle , Because the oceanic lithosphere is actually the top thermal solid layer of the thermal layer boundary layer. This relationship between the solid layer on the surface of the Earth and the thermal mantle is called tectonic plates
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, metallurgy, and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures provide an insightful and powerful insight into the internal and structural composition of the Earth.
(Geological developments occurring in a region):
The geology of a region changes with the passage of time, such as rock particles, of which what is deposited on its own and the other precipitates over a rock, and the deformation processes change its shape and its location.
The rock units are placed first either by precipitation on a surface or by seizing it on the surface of a rock by its presence in the top of that rock. Sedimentation can occur if sediments settle on the surface of the earth and form layers by hardening them and transforming them from sediments into solid sedimentary rocks or in the case of volcanic material such as volcanic ash or lava that flows in the ground. Fireworks such as: triangles are deep fiery bodies and their shape is Irregular. Likewise, lacoliths are shallow firearms and their shape is uniform. As for cutters (dikes) and horizontal layers, silts are deposited and accumulate in the top of their rock and crystallize as intrusive.
After the first series of rock that has been deposited, the rock particles may be deformed or transformed into another type of rock.
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Parasites such as protozoa or helminths currently account for greater morbidity and mortality than any other class of infectious organisms, particularly in developing countries. The structural and antigenic diversity of pathogenic parasites is reflected in the heterogeneity of the adaptive immune responses that they elicit. Protozoa that live within host cells are destroyed by cell-mediated immunity, whereas helminths are eliminated by IgE antibody and eosinophil mediated killing as well as by other leukocytes. The principal innate immune response to protozoa is phagocytosis, but many of these parasites are resistant to phagocytic killing and may even replicate within macrophages. Phagocytes also attack helminthic parasites and secrete microbicidal substances to kill organisms that are too large to be phagocytosed. Some helminths may also activate the alternative pathway of complement. The principal defense mechanism against protozoa that survive within macrophages (e.g. Leishmania spp., Toxoplasma gondii) is cell-mediated immunity, particularly macrophage activation by TH1 cell-derived cytokines. Protozoa that replicate inside various host cells and lyse these cells stimulate specific antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses (e.g. Plasmodium spp.). Defense against many helminthic infections is mediated by the activation of TH2 cells, which results in production of IgE antibodies and activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The combined actions of mast cells and eosinophils lead to expulsion and destruction of the parasites. Most parasitic infections are chronic because of weak innate immunity and the ability of parasites to evade or resist elimination by adaptive immune responses Parasites evade the immune system by varying their antigens during residence in vertebrate hosts, by acquiring resistance to immune effector mechanisms, and by masking and shedding their surface antigens.
Keywords: Protozoa, helminths, innate, Th1/Th2, Immunity, Parasites, adaptive immune responses, IgE, eosinophil-mediated, cell-mediated immunity, macrophages, leukocytes, Leishmania spp, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, eosinophils, mast cells, immigration, immunoparasitology, immunology, Taenia solium eggs, mannose-rich lipophosphoglycan, Schistosoma mansoni, C-reactive protein, glycophosphatidylinositol, TNF, IL-1, CD80, CD86, OX40 receptor, Gata3 expression, IGF, NKT Cells, Marginal Zone, basophils, Eosinophil, caM, L-arginine hydrolysis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection, trypomastigote, CD59, KDal-protein, SCIP-1, apolipoprotein, haptoglobin-related protein, lipophosphoglycan, E. histolytica
Download Al-Wajeez book on geology
Engineering Geology Book
Yemen Geology Book
The names of the types of rocks
سنة النشر : 2006م / 1427هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 0.4MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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