📘 قراءة كتاب Molecular Biology and Gene Transfer Protocols-Humana Press (1999) أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Over the last 15 years, there has been remarkably rapid progress in defining
the molecular basis of inherited disorders. Many disease genes (the majority of
which are genes responsible for monogenic Mendelian diseases) have now been
identified, predominately through linkage analysis and positional cloning
approaches. With the continuing expansion in this research area, the number of
genes to be screened for disease-causing mutations will continue to increase,
especially as there are now worldwide efforts aiming to identify the gene
lesions that contribute to complex diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, and coronary artery diseases, each of which involves many susceptibility genes.
Disease-causing mutations can be broadly classified into two groups: those
causing a significant change in chromosome or gene structures (e.g., large
deletions, insertions, and rearrangements) and those involving only one or a
few nucleotides (e.g., point mutations, and small deletions and insertions) (1).
The former group of mutations can be detected using, for example, cytogenetic
techniques, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, and Southern blotting. Detection
of the latter group of mutations, however, require different methodologies.
DNA sequencing will be the ultimate technique for identifying such mutations.
However, despite automation, sequencing remains a relatively slow procedure
and is not cost-effective. Therefore, a number of different mutation detection
techniques have been developed, such as ribonuclease A cleavage analysis
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2001م / 1422هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 3.326 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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