📘 قراءة كتاب Thyroid Hormone Receptors. Methods and Protocols أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) play a major role in animal physiology.
TRs are important and very interesting regulators of diverse aspects, including
brain development, hearing, bone growth, morphogenesis, metabolism, intestine, and heart rate in vertebrates (Fig. 1). Aberrant functions of TRs induce
tremendous defects in these pathways. For example, the human disease of
Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH) (see Chapter 8 by Yoh and Privalsky)
is a genetically autosomal dominant inherited syndrome that is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the TRβ. The role of the ligand of TRs, the thyroid
hormone, is to modulate the activity and functionality of TRs.
Two separate genes encode two highly homologous TRs, TRα and TRβ.
The TRα gene is localized on chromosome 17, while chromosome 3 harbors
the TRβ locus. Each gene encodes for several isoforms due to alternative splicing and alternative promoter usage (Fig. 2) (1–3). The expression patterns of
TRα and TRβ are different, although overlapping in developing and adult tissue (4–6). Also, splice variants and the various gene products from both TRα
and TRβ gene loci, which are derived from alternative promoter usage, exhibit
a distinct expression profile. Since these naturally occurring “truncated”
receptors affect the functionality of the full-length TRs, the different expression levels and expression profiles result in differing tissue specificity of TR
action and modulation of thyroid hormone response
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2002م / 1423هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 4.865 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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