📘 قراءة كتاب The Genetics and Biology of Sex Determination-J. Wiley أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
The Ciba/Novartis Foundation meetings are amazing. I remember the ¢rst one I
attended, back in 1958. Last week I was in the University of California in Berkeley,
talking to Professor Howard Bern, the distinguished comparative biologist. He
said, ‘Do you know how my scienti¢c career began? It was when, as a young
graduate student, I was invited to a Ciba Foundation meeting in 1952, on germ
cells’ (Ciba Foundation 1953). I hope that in another 40 years’ time, some of you
will be saying something similar about this meeting. It is the discussions that we
have at these meetings that are so exciting.
I would like to set the scene. I should probably start with a word of explanation.
The ¢rst question that many of you will be asking is, why are there so many
Australians in the room? You might think that it is because Peter Koopman
proposed the meeting, but that isn’t the reason. Sex ‘down under’ is done rather
di¡erently, so we have much to learn from Gondwanaland about the evolution of
We are going to hear a great deal at this meeting about the evolution of sex
determination, which is currently a very exciting topic. But let me remind all of
you how we de¢ne sex. If you produce many small highly motile gametes, you
are male. If you produce fewer, large, sessile gametes, you are female. Although
we are going to be discussing sex determination, almost all of the papers will be
dealing not with the type of gametes that are ultimately produced, but with the
morphology of the gonadal soma. I think we need to remember that the somatic
sex of the gonad is a secondary issue; it is germ cell sex that ultimately determines
maleness or femaleness. Although we know much about the genetic control of
gonadal somatic di¡erentiation, we are largely ignorant of the genetic control of
the germ cells.
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2002م / 1423هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.485 .
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