📘 قراءة كتاب Principles and Protocols-Humana Press أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
The isolation of specific regions within the genome of an organism is now
normally accomplished by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification
using primers specific for the region in question. However, there are occasions
where this is not possible (loss of primer sites resulting in no amplification or if
there are no primers available). In these cases the detection of the sequence of
interest can be achieved by hybridization of a labeled probe to restricted
genomic DNA immobilized on a membrane by Southern blotting (1). Genomic
DNA is first digested by one or more restriction enzymes and the fragments
generated separated by gel electrophoresis. The amount of DNA to be applied
to the gel varies from application to application. In general 10 µg of human
genomic DNA is needed for the detection of a single copy gene when using
radioactively labeled probes and an overnight exposure to X-ray film. This
figure can be reduced if the target is either a repetitive element (e.g., ribosomal
DNA) or, if plasmid DNA or PCR products are run on the gel. Once the fragments are separated on the gel the DNA is then denatured in situ and transferred by capillary transfer to either a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane. The
DNA fragments are then bound to the membrane, which can then be used in a
1.2.1. Specific Materials
1. 3MM filter paper (Whatman), paper towels, glass or plastic tray and support (a
gel casting tray turned upside down), cling film.
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2001م / 1422هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.997 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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