❞ كتاب Lakes and Wetlands ❝  ⏤ Britannica Educational

❞ كتاب Lakes and Wetlands ❝ ⏤ Britannica Educational

نبذه عن الكتاب:

the concentration of ions—charged atoms or
molecules—present in water. Certain lakes, such as
Great Salt Lake in Utah (U.S.) and the Dead Sea in the
Middle East, have salinity levels higher than that of the
world’s oceans. The majority of lakes, however, have
ion concentrations so low that salinity level becomes
negligible. Soluble salts in the surrounding rock, which
gradually erodes and flows into lakes via streams and
rivers, determine salinity. Many other inorganic compounds such as various plant nutrients (e.g., phosphates
and nitrates), heavy metals (e.g., mercury), and polychlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., DDT) may also find
their way into a lake by these means, although rainfall
and wind-borne air particulates are culprit methods of
addition as well.
Numerous interacting variables influence the life
cycle of a lake, among them temperature variants within
lake strata and the extent to which light penetrates into
the deeper waters. Solar radiation, inflows and outflows
of water, and the effects of wind cause temperature
change; currents and wave action each directly affects
the temperature map of a lake. These temperature zones
within lakes are further affected by clastic sediments
(clay, silt, sand), organic debris, and chemical precipitates. In general, lakes undergo heat transfers vertically,
which causes mixing of the waters to the extent that
thermocline, or heat-gradient, regions will “flip.” For
example, the uppermost lake waters, characterized by
temperatures near freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) in the early
spring, absorb heat as the weather warms. The density
of the water in these upper layers will increase until the
water temperature exceeds (4 °C [39.2 °F]). If the density
of the upper layers of the lake is greater than that of the
lower layers, the water in the upper layers sinks, and the
lake water overturns.
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نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Lakes and Wetlands

2011م - 1443هـ
نبذه عن الكتاب:

the concentration of ions—charged atoms or
molecules—present in water. Certain lakes, such as
Great Salt Lake in Utah (U.S.) and the Dead Sea in the
Middle East, have salinity levels higher than that of the
world’s oceans. The majority of lakes, however, have
ion concentrations so low that salinity level becomes
negligible. Soluble salts in the surrounding rock, which
gradually erodes and flows into lakes via streams and
rivers, determine salinity. Many other inorganic compounds such as various plant nutrients (e.g., phosphates
and nitrates), heavy metals (e.g., mercury), and polychlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., DDT) may also find
their way into a lake by these means, although rainfall
and wind-borne air particulates are culprit methods of
addition as well.
Numerous interacting variables influence the life
cycle of a lake, among them temperature variants within
lake strata and the extent to which light penetrates into
the deeper waters. Solar radiation, inflows and outflows
of water, and the effects of wind cause temperature
change; currents and wave action each directly affects
the temperature map of a lake. These temperature zones
within lakes are further affected by clastic sediments
(clay, silt, sand), organic debris, and chemical precipitates. In general, lakes undergo heat transfers vertically,
which causes mixing of the waters to the extent that
thermocline, or heat-gradient, regions will “flip.” For
example, the uppermost lake waters, characterized by
temperatures near freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) in the early
spring, absorb heat as the weather warms. The density
of the water in these upper layers will increase until the
water temperature exceeds (4 °C [39.2 °F]). If the density
of the upper layers of the lake is greater than that of the
lower layers, the water in the upper layers sinks, and the
lake water overturns. .
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

Biologically

Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.


Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:

Anatomy
Botany
Biochemia
Biogeography
Biofisia
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science

 

 

نبذه عن الكتاب:

the concentration of ions—charged atoms or
molecules—present in water. Certain lakes, such as
Great Salt Lake in Utah (U.S.) and the Dead Sea in the
Middle East, have salinity levels higher than that of the
world’s oceans. The majority of lakes, however, have
ion concentrations so low that salinity level becomes
negligible. Soluble salts in the surrounding rock, which
gradually erodes and flows into lakes via streams and
rivers, determine salinity. Many other inorganic compounds such as various plant nutrients (e.g., phosphates
and nitrates), heavy metals (e.g., mercury), and polychlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., DDT) may also find
their way into a lake by these means, although rainfall
and wind-borne air particulates are culprit methods of
addition as well.
Numerous interacting variables influence the life
cycle of a lake, among them temperature variants within
lake strata and the extent to which light penetrates into
the deeper waters. Solar radiation, inflows and outflows
of water, and the effects of wind cause temperature
change; currents and wave action each directly affects
the temperature map of a lake. These temperature zones
within lakes are further affected by clastic sediments
(clay, silt, sand), organic debris, and chemical precipitates. In general, lakes undergo heat transfers vertically,
which causes mixing of the waters to the extent that
thermocline, or heat-gradient, regions will “flip.” For
example, the uppermost lake waters, characterized by
temperatures near freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) in the early
spring, absorb heat as the weather warms. The density
of the water in these upper layers will increase until the
water temperature exceeds (4 °C [39.2 °F]). If the density
of the upper layers of the lake is greater than that of the
lower layers, the water in the upper layers sinks, and the
lake water overturns.

Biology
Human biology
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
Human biology

 



سنة النشر : 2011م / 1432هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 4.394 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
عداد القراءة: عدد قراءة Lakes and Wetlands

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