❞ كتاب Tumor Suppressor Genes Pathways and Isolation Strategies ❝  ⏤ Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD

❞ كتاب Tumor Suppressor Genes Pathways and Isolation Strategies ❝ ⏤ Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD

نبذه عن الكتاب:

Growth Control by the Retinoblastoma Gene Family
Marco G. Paggi, Armando Felsani, and Antonio Giordano
1. Introduction
1.1. The Retinoblastoma Gene Family
The Retinoblastoma family consists of three genes, RB, p107, and Rb2/p130, all fundamental in the control of important cellular phenomena, such as cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis. The “founder” and the most investigated gene of the family is RB,
which is considered the prototype for the tumor suppressor genes (1,2). The other two
genes, p107 and Rb2/p130, and the proteins they code for, p107 and pRb2/p130, respectively, clearly reflect a high degree of structural and functional similarity to the RB
gene product, pRb (3,4). The RB family proteins were disclosed initially by investigators working on viral oncoproteins. In particular, a set of proteins associated with the
Adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein was identified, and the bands representing the most
abundant ones were named p60, p105, p107, p130, and p300, in keeping with their apparent molecular mass, as determined by SDS-PAGE (5). The subsequent characterization of these proteins identified p105 as the product of the RB gene (6). Later, genes
encoding p107 (7,8) and pRb2/p130 (9–11) were cloned using different strategies.
In essence, the structure of the three RB family gene products, pRb, p107, and
pRb2/p130, consist of (a) an N-terminal portion, (b) a “pocket structure” subdivided
into domain A, spacer, and domain B, and (c) a C-terminal portion, a.k.a. domain C (3).
The pocket functional domains A and B are the most conserved among the three RB
family members and are responsible for most of the interactions involving either some
endogenous proteins, such as those of the E2F family (3,4,12–14), or viral oncoproteins,
i.e., Adenovirus 5 E1A, SV40 large T, and Human Papillomavirus E7 (6,7,15–20).
A common relevant biological feature shared by the three members of this family is
the ability to control the cell cycle (8,21–23). In fact, they negatively modulate the transition between the G1 and S phases, utilizing mechanisms mostly related to inactivation
of transcription factors, such as those of the E2F family, that promote the cell’s entrance
into the S phase (3,4,12–14). The role of the RB family proteins as key negative cell cycle
regulators is mainly modulated by posttranslational modifications, the most important
one being phosphorylation. In fact, the RB gene product is a well-known substrate for either kinase or phosphatase activity, thus undergoing extensive
Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Tumor Suppressor Genes Pathways and Isolation Strategies ❝ ❱
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نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Tumor Suppressor Genes Pathways and Isolation Strategies

نبذه عن الكتاب:

Growth Control by the Retinoblastoma Gene Family
Marco G. Paggi, Armando Felsani, and Antonio Giordano
1. Introduction
1.1. The Retinoblastoma Gene Family
The Retinoblastoma family consists of three genes, RB, p107, and Rb2/p130, all fundamental in the control of important cellular phenomena, such as cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis. The “founder” and the most investigated gene of the family is RB,
which is considered the prototype for the tumor suppressor genes (1,2). The other two
genes, p107 and Rb2/p130, and the proteins they code for, p107 and pRb2/p130, respectively, clearly reflect a high degree of structural and functional similarity to the RB
gene product, pRb (3,4). The RB family proteins were disclosed initially by investigators working on viral oncoproteins. In particular, a set of proteins associated with the
Adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein was identified, and the bands representing the most
abundant ones were named p60, p105, p107, p130, and p300, in keeping with their apparent molecular mass, as determined by SDS-PAGE (5). The subsequent characterization of these proteins identified p105 as the product of the RB gene (6). Later, genes
encoding p107 (7,8) and pRb2/p130 (9–11) were cloned using different strategies.
In essence, the structure of the three RB family gene products, pRb, p107, and
pRb2/p130, consist of (a) an N-terminal portion, (b) a “pocket structure” subdivided
into domain A, spacer, and domain B, and (c) a C-terminal portion, a.k.a. domain C (3).
The pocket functional domains A and B are the most conserved among the three RB
family members and are responsible for most of the interactions involving either some
endogenous proteins, such as those of the E2F family (3,4,12–14), or viral oncoproteins,
i.e., Adenovirus 5 E1A, SV40 large T, and Human Papillomavirus E7 (6,7,15–20).
A common relevant biological feature shared by the three members of this family is
the ability to control the cell cycle (8,21–23). In fact, they negatively modulate the transition between the G1 and S phases, utilizing mechanisms mostly related to inactivation
of transcription factors, such as those of the E2F family, that promote the cell’s entrance
into the S phase (3,4,12–14). The role of the RB family proteins as key negative cell cycle
regulators is mainly modulated by posttranslational modifications, the most important
one being phosphorylation. In fact, the RB gene product is a well-known substrate for either kinase or phosphatase activity, thus undergoing extensive .
المزيد..

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Biologically

Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.


Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:

Anatomy
Botany
Biochemia
Biogeography
Biofisia
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science

 

 

نبذه عن الكتاب:

Growth Control by the Retinoblastoma Gene Family
Marco G. Paggi, Armando Felsani, and Antonio Giordano
1. Introduction
1.1. The Retinoblastoma Gene Family
The Retinoblastoma family consists of three genes, RB, p107, and Rb2/p130, all fundamental in the control of important cellular phenomena, such as cell cycle, differentiation, and apoptosis. The “founder” and the most investigated gene of the family is RB,
which is considered the prototype for the tumor suppressor genes (1,2). The other two
genes, p107 and Rb2/p130, and the proteins they code for, p107 and pRb2/p130, respectively, clearly reflect a high degree of structural and functional similarity to the RB
gene product, pRb (3,4). The RB family proteins were disclosed initially by investigators working on viral oncoproteins. In particular, a set of proteins associated with the
Adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein was identified, and the bands representing the most
abundant ones were named p60, p105, p107, p130, and p300, in keeping with their apparent molecular mass, as determined by SDS-PAGE (5). The subsequent characterization of these proteins identified p105 as the product of the RB gene (6). Later, genes
encoding p107 (7,8) and pRb2/p130 (9–11) were cloned using different strategies.
In essence, the structure of the three RB family gene products, pRb, p107, and
pRb2/p130, consist of (a) an N-terminal portion, (b) a “pocket structure” subdivided
into domain A, spacer, and domain B, and (c) a C-terminal portion, a.k.a. domain C (3).
The pocket functional domains A and B are the most conserved among the three RB
family members and are responsible for most of the interactions involving either some
endogenous proteins, such as those of the E2F family (3,4,12–14), or viral oncoproteins,
i.e., Adenovirus 5 E1A, SV40 large T, and Human Papillomavirus E7 (6,7,15–20).
A common relevant biological feature shared by the three members of this family is
the ability to control the cell cycle (8,21–23). In fact, they negatively modulate the transition between the G1 and S phases, utilizing mechanisms mostly related to inactivation
of transcription factors, such as those of the E2F family, that promote the cell’s entrance
into the S phase (3,4,12–14). The role of the RB family proteins as key negative cell cycle
regulators is mainly modulated by posttranslational modifications, the most important
one being phosphorylation. In fact, the RB gene product is a well-known substrate for either kinase or phosphatase activity, thus undergoing extensive

Biology
Human biology
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
Human biology

 



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كتب Wafik S. El-Deiry, MD, PhD ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Tumor Suppressor Genes Pathways and Isolation Strategies ❝ ❱. المزيد..

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