📘 قراءة كتاب Antiviral Methods and Protocols أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Changing Methods for Discovering Antiviral Drugs
Philip S. Jones
Viral diseases were largely untreatable 40 yr ago. Now effective and safe
therapies are available. This has led to significant improvements in the quality
of life for large numbers of patients. New viral diseases are, however, continuing to emerge and established viruses have been shown to develop resistance to
available therapies making this a fertile area for continued drug discovery. The
processes used to discover drugs have also changed enormously over the past
40 yr. Nowhere have these changes been more apparent than in the field of
antiviral therapy. Therefore, the development of antiviral drugs makes an
excellent example for documenting the changes in approaches used to discover
active agents. This brief chapter describes some of these changes—from the
broad screening in animals and tissue culture first used to the mechanism–based
approaches using computer assisted techniques and biostructural information.
The origins of antiviral therapies can be traced to the early 1950s, when
sulfonamide antibiotics were tested for activity against poxviruses using mice
infected with vaccinia (1). A decade of work at the Wellcome laboratories culminated in the development of methisazone, which was introduced in 1960 for
the prophylaxis of smallpox (see Scheme 1). Notable success in the smallpox
epidemic in Madras in 1963 demonstrated the value of this compound, but
vaccines introduced soon after led to eradication of the disease and made the
compound redundant. However, the principle that chemotherapy was effective
for treating antiviral diseases had been demonstrated.
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 1999م / 1420هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 4.045 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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