📘 قراءة كتاب Isotope Hydrology أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
“Water, water, every where, — nor any drop to drink” (Samuel Taylor
Coleridge, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”) aptly sums up the overall
picture of the hydrosphere — that part of planet Earth made up of water.
The oceans, covering 71% of the surface of the globe, make up 97.25% of
the mass of water. Most of the freshwaters, whose volume is estimated to
be 39·106 km3, are also not immediately accessible: 29·106 km3 is ice accumulated on mountain glaciers and on the ice caps of the poles; 9.5·106 km3
constitute groundwaters and only about 0.13·106 km3 are surface waters,
mainly lakes and rivers. The amount of water held up in the biosphere is
estimated to be 0.6·103 km3. The atmospheric moisture amounts to just
13·103 km3 — less than 10−5 of the total amount of water — but this
small amount is the one which actuates the hydrologic cycle by virtue of
its dynamic nature.
Figure 1.1 shows in a schematic fashion the components of the hydrologic
system and the mean annual fluxes between these compartments, i.e. the
evaporation, transport through the atmosphere, precipitation over sea and
land surfaces, and the backflow to the ocean as surface and sub-surface
runoff. Some secondary loops of water recycling from the continents to the
atmosphere are also indicated. It is evident that to a first approximation,
the hydrologic cycle is a closed one. However, the different reservoirs are
not strictly in a steady state, on a variety of time scales. There is a marked
seasonal imbalance caused by snow accumulations on large land areas in
winter; soil moisture and surface reservoirs such as lakes and wetlands fill up
during rainy periods
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2005م / 1426هـ .
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