📘 قراءة كتاب Protein Kinase Protocols أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Protein Kinase-Mediated Signaling Networks
Regulation and Functional Characterization
Alastair D. Reith
1. Introduction—Regulation of Membrane Receptor Kinase
Many aspects of cellular metabolism are regulated by reversible phosphorylation of proteins. Several amino acid residues within proteins are subject to such
posttranslational regulatory events, the best characterized of which are tyrosine,
serine, and threonine. Transfer of phosphate to such residues is mediated by protein kinases that catalyze the transfer of phosphate from adenosine triphosphate
(ATP) to specific relevant amino acid residues. This fundamental property of
protein kinases is utilized and elaborated upon in many different contexts to generate protein kinase mediated signaling cascades by which extracellular stimuli
are accurately perceived and elicit appropriate cellular responses.
Protein kinases constitute the largest single enzyme family in the human
genome, with an estimated total number estimated around 2000, and are highly
conserved across species. This latter aspect has enabled great strides to be made
in our understanding of the functions of these proteins through genetic analysis
in tractable model organisms such as yeast, C. elegans, and Drosophila.
Together with a diverse range of complementary techniques, including biophysical and crystallographic studies, an integrated view is emerging that
facilitates our understanding of this fundamentally important aspect of cellular
Who is the founder of biology?
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Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2001م / 1422هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.908 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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