📘 قراءة كتاب PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Specificity and Performance
of Diagnostic PCR Assays
The undisputed success of detection assays based on the polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) has been largely due to its rapidity in comparison to many conventional diagnostic methods. For instance, detection and identification of
mycobacteria, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, brucellae, and other slow-growing
bacteria can be accelerated from several days to a single working day when
clinical samples are directly examined. Other microbial agents that are difficult
to propagate outside their natural host often remain undetected by techniques
relying on cultural enrichment, thus rendering PCR the only viable alternative
to demonstrate their presence. Additionally, there is the enormous potential of
DNA amplification assays with regard to sensitivity and specificity.
Nowadays, when a new PCR assay is introduced into a laboratory, the diagnostician expects it to facilitate the examination of clinical samples without preenrichment and to allow specific differentiation between closely related species
or subtypes at the same time. While there can be no doubt that the potential to
fulfill these demanding criteria is actually inherent in PCR-based methods, and
the present volume contains convincing evidence of this in Chapters 5–22, there
is often a need for critical evaluation of a given methodology, not only in the
case of obvious failure or underperformance, but also when certain parameters
have to be optimized to further improve performance or reduce costs.
The present chapter is designed to discuss the importance of key factors in
PCR detection assays and provide an insight into basic mechanisms underlying
the amplification of DNA templates from microbial sources. Besides the quality of the nucleic acid template (see Chapter 2) there are several other crucial
parameters deciding over the performance of a detection method, e.g., the target region, primer sequences, and efficiency of amplification
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2002م / 1423هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 4.431 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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