📘 قراءة كتاب The brain-shaped mind what the brain can tell us أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
I first heard of connectionism in 1982, when I began studying cognitive psychology. I had read Edward deBono’s pioneering work, The
Mechanism of Mind, twenty years earlier, and I had found it fascinating, but
at that time the term “connectionism” had not yet been invented. When I
learned about semantic networks, in which concepts were represented as
points connected by links of various sorts, it seemed to me that concepts
were much too rich to be described as mere points. Instead, I imagined
them as long tangled threads meandering around in several dimensions,
and I imagined the links between the concepts as the points where these
When I described this image to my cognitive psychology professor,
Benny Shanon, he said, “That’s the new theory everyone is talking about —
it’s called connectionism.” He had just ordered the brand-new book on
the topic, Hinton and Anderson’s collection of papers, Parallel Models of
Associative Memory, and was waiting for it to arrive. When the book came
we spent a lot of time arguing over who should get to read it first. Each of
us would take it home for a week or two and try to read a few pages, then
give it to the other for the next week or two. On the one hand, the new
ideas were fascinating, but on the other, they were very difficult to grasp
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2001م / 1422هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 709 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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