📘 قراءة كتاب Structural Bioinformatics of Membrane Proteins أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Although the genes that encode membrane proteins make about 30% of the sequenced genomes,
the evolution of membrane proteins and their origins are still poorly understood.
Here we address this topic by taking a closer look at those membrane proteins the ancestors
of which were present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor, and in particular, the
F/V-type rotating ATPases. Reconstruction of their evolutionary history provides hints
for understanding not only the origin of membrane proteins, but also of membranes themselves.
We argue that the evolution of biological membranes could occur as a process of coevolution
of lipid bilayers and membrane proteins, where the increase in the ion-tightness
of the membrane bilayer may have been accompanied by a transition from amphiphilic,
pore-forming membrane proteins to highly hydrophobic integral membrane complexes.
Th e origins of membrane proteins are inextricably coupled with the origin of lipid
membranes. Indeed, membrane proteins, which contain hydrophobic stretches and
are generally insoluble in water, could not have evolved in the absence of functional
membranes, while purely lipid membranes would be impenetrable and hence useless
without membrane proteins. Th e origins of biological membranes – as complex
cellular devices that control the energetics of the cell and its interactions with the
surrounding world (Gennis 1989) – remain obscure (Deamer 1997; Pereto et al.
Who is the founder of biology?
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Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2010م / 1431هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.76 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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