📘 قراءة كتاب Bjorn H. Junker, Falk Schreiber-Analysis of Biological Networks أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
Among the sciences that showed the most rapid growth rate during the second half
of the twentieth century, biochemistry occupies one of the foremost positions. Up to
this time, the isolation of enzymes and the investigation of their reactions were the
main focus of studies. But in 1953, the structure of DNA was published and a complete new field of research was entered. The function of genetic information storage
and recovery could be elucidated. Consecutive studies in this direction dealt with
the regulation of protein synthesis, which determines the quantity of proteins present and thus, in the case of enzymes, their activity. However, the turnover rate of
enzymatic reactions is also controlled by activators, inhibitors, conformation
changes, degradation or chemical modification of enzymes, and by other means.
A whole network of regulatory mechanisms could be elucidated, which became
an overlay over the network of enzymatic pathways.
All these activities resulted in a tremendous flood of data. Only the application
of computers and advancement in informatics permitted the completion of many
tasks in biochemistry, for example, the sequencing of the human genome with its
billions of base pairs. Data management is developing in two directions: on the one
hand to achieve the solution of detailed problems, and on the other hand to obtain a
general survey of metabolism and regulation in a larger unit, up to a complete living
being. The latter aspect includes the presentation of the network of metabolic pathways, the mechanisms of their regulation and the compounds involved in it, the
flow rates of metabolites under various external conditions, etc. Analogously to
the term ‘‘genome’’ known for a long time, their various components are named
‘‘transcriptome,’’ ‘‘proteome,’’ ‘‘regulome,’’ ‘‘metabolome,’’ etc
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2008م / 1429هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 3.57 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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