📘 قراءة كتاب Developments in environmental modelling أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
بذه عن الكتاب:
As a premise to this textbook on Numerical ecology, the authors wish to state their
opinion concerning the role of data analysis in ecology. In the above quotation, Goethe
cautioned readers against the use of mathematics in the natural sciences. In his
opinion, mathematics may obscure, under an often esoteric language, the natural
phenomena that scientists are trying to elucidate. Unfortunately, there are many
examples in the ecological literature where the use of mathematics unintentionally lent
support to Goethe’s thesis. This has become more frequent with the advent of
computers, which facilitated access to the most complex numerical treatments.
Fortunately, many other examples, including those discussed in the present book, show
that ecologists who master the theoretical bases of numerical methods and know how
to use them can derive a deeper understanding of natural phenomena from their
Numerical approaches can never dispense researchers from ecological reflection on
observations. Data analysis must be seen as an objective and non-exclusive approach
to carry out in-depth analysis of the data. Consequently, throughout this book, we put
emphasis on ecological applications, which illustrate how to go from numerical results
to ecological conclusions.
This book is written for the practising ecologists — graduate students and
professional researchers. For this reason, it is organized both as a practical handbook
and a reference textbook. Our goal is to describe and discuss the numerical methods
which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and
comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical
physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical
taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 1998م / 1419هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 3.38 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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