📘 قراءة كتاب Environmental Requirements and Market Access for Developing Countries أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
As multilateral, regional and bilateral trade negotiations on trade liberalization result in further
tariff reductions, discussions on market access are increasingly focusing on the growing use of
non-tariff measures, including environmental requirements. Some analysts and policy-makers believe environmental and related health requirements (ERHRs) are long overdue to counter unsustainable trends in production and consumption; others warn that such requirements run the risk
of being turned into a new form of versatile non-tariff barrier (NTB) that could hamper developing-country exports. One key question therefore is how to foster environmental, not trade, protection. Another important question is: How can developing countries benefit from consumer preferences for environmentally preferable products?
Against this background, this Trade and Environment Review analyses the relationship between environmental requirements and market access for developing countries. The first two chapters attempt to conceptualize the key issues at stake, provide practical information and identify
possible actions, at the national and multilateral levels, that could assist developing countries in
strengthening their capacities to respond to emerging ERHRs and take advantage of new opportunities. The Review also attempts to respond to the need for more sector-specific analysis. Chapter
2, for instance, analyses adjustment strategies in developing countries to new environmental requirements for electrical and electronic equipment in international markets. This is a very dynamic export sector in which some Asian developing countries are major global suppliers. The
adjustment strategies also need to address problems related to the growing domestically generated
waste from electrical and electronic equipment. Chapter 3 discusses market opportunities for environmentally preferable products that may result from new ERHRs, with special emphasis on
organic agricultural exports from developing countries.
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2006م / 1427هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 1.34 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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