❞ مذكّرة Summary of English language lessons ❝

❞ مذكّرة Summary of English language lessons ❝

Summary of English language lessons

تأليف:

Yacine Forever


Summary of English language lessonsCondition
You can take my car providing that

you
don’t
damage it. (Main clause) (Subordinate clause)
The meaning: I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.
Verb in Future

verb in present simple
Wishes
Present wish: (wish, past simple) Example: I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) Present wish expresses an imaginary situation impossible to happen. If only
=
wish Past wish: (wish, past perfect) Example: I wish I
hadn’t eaten
so much. (I ate a lot.)Past wish expresses a regret about a situation happened in the past. Future wish: (wish, would
+

stem (a verb without “to”))
Example: I wish I would stop smoking. Can
=
could (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)Future wish expresses impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. Wish
=

+
verb in past simple
Had better
Had better is used to express adviceHad better
=
should
=
ought to Had better
+

stem (a verb without “to”)
Example: you had better work hard to pass your final exam. Negative form: Had
better not +stem (a verb without “to”)
. Example: you look tired, you had better not go to schooltoday.
Result
Expressing results we use:
-Subject
+
verb
+
so
+
adjective
+
that
+
the rest of the sentence. Example: copies of brand are so cheap that some
consumers don’t hesitate to
buy them. -Subject
+
verb
+
such
+
a noun phrase
+
that
+
therest of the sentence. Example: It was such a good film that I watched ittwice. We canexpress results using other link word:

Cause
Expressing causes: we use:

-

Sentence
+

+
subject
+
verb

Example: - He succeeded in his exam because he had worked hard. - The audience cheered as it was a good play. -

Sentence
+

+
noun phrase. Example: - She succeeded in his exam because of her work hard. - I had to ask for help because of thedifficult of the question.

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Summary of English language lessonsModals
These modals express: -

Strong obligation


Prohibition “forbidden”


Necessity




Lack (absence) of obligation -



As a past of verb called participle. Examples:
I’m
waiting
, I’m
playing.


As a noun or gerund.
Example: The eating
of GMF’s might harmful.


As an adjective. Example: This book is more interesting than that one.
Stative (state) & action verb
A state verb: is a verb which describes a states (has not awell defined beginning & the end) Examples: like, agree, believe, dislike, deserve, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, dread, and mind.

A state verb is usually use in the present form

A state verb can’t be progressive
(Continuous
form (“ing” form)).
An action verb: is a verb which describes an action or anevent (has a specific beginning & the end). Examples: go, stop, come, start, achieve, write, win,Describe, Search, and Replace.


An action verb can be used in simple and continuous
form (“ing” form)
(progressive)
Prefix & suffix
Prefix: it comes before the word and changes its meaning. -

OppositesAgree

disagree Moral

immoral Legal

illegal Fair

unfair Direct

indirect Responsible

ir responsible Suffix: it comes after the word and changes its form to anadjective, an adverb, a noun, a verb. Exam

ple: -

The suffix “
ty
” is added to an adjective to form a noun
. Stupid

Stupidity -

The suffix “
y
” is
added to a noun to form an adjective.
Spice

Spicy Conditionals
We have four types of conditionals:Type zero: T
0
If
+
Verb in present simple, Verb in present simple. Eg: If you heat water, it boils.



T
0
is used to describe a general or scientific truth.Type one: T
1
If
+
Verb in present simple, verb in future (will
+
stem)Eg: If she works hard, she will go to university.


The situation in T
1
is possible to happen.Type two: T
2
If
+
Verb in past simple, would
+
stem Eg: If I were you, I would buy a car.


The situation in T
2
is impossible to happen (animaginary situation).


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Summary of English language lessons
Type three: T
3
If
+
Verb in past perfect, would have
+
past participleE

g: If I had read the question well, I would have taken the best mark.


The situation in T
3
is a regret about an event that hadhappened in the past
Quantifiers
-

for countable nouns.-

for uncountable nouns.-


for countable & uncountable nouns(both).

(It’s the
right quantity).
=


(It isn’t the right quantity)
. The excessive and the insufficient of something:An excessive amount:


An insufficient amount:

Used for & Used to

are verbs used to describe purpose and function of objects


Used to
+
stem
(a verb without “to”)
E

g:
It’s used to cut wood.



Used for
+
verb
+
ing (gerund) Eg:
It’s used for cutting wood.

How …?

How: is a word question used for ask about dimension andsize of objects. -
How tall…?
-
How long…?
-
How high…?
-
How far…?
-
How fast…?
-
How deep…?
-
How wide…?
-
How much…?


HeightHeightHeightDistanceSpeedDepth WidthWeight
Content & structure (function) words
Sentences contain two kind of word: Content words: are necessary and contain the meaning. -
Main verb (play, go, work…).
-Nouns. -
Adjectives (serious, nice…).
-
Adverbs (carefully, quickly…).
-
Demonstratives pronouns (this, that…).
-Negative
auxiliaries (wasn’t, couldn’t…).
-Yes, No (auxiliary) questions. -Wh questions. Structure (function) words: they make the sentences correctgrammatically. -
Pronouns (I, he, they…)
. - Prepositions
(on, the, at, to, under…)
. -Articles (a, an, the). -Conjunctions
(but, and, because…)
. -
Auxiliary verbs (is, are, do, have, can…)
. Note:

Content words are stressed.Structure words are not stressed.
Comparatives & superlatives
Comparatives We must have two elements to compare. -

Superiority Short adjectives: adjectives of one syllableAdj
+
er
+
than (Eg: she is taller than me.) Long adjectives: adjectives of two or more syllables More
+
adj
+
than (Eg: meat is more expensive than chicken.) -

Equality As
+
adj
+
as (she is as intelligent as her brother.) -

Inferiority: Less
+
adj
+
than (he is less intelligent than me.) Not as
+
adj
+
as (our garden is not as large as yours). Not so




-
من قواعد اللغة الانجليزية(Grammar) كتب تعليم اللغات - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Summary of English language lessons

Summary of English language lessons

تأليف:

Yacine Forever


Summary of English language lessonsCondition
You can take my car providing that

you
don’t
damage it. (Main clause) (Subordinate clause)
The meaning: I will lend you my car on condition that you don't damage it.
Verb in Future

verb in present simple
Wishes
Present wish: (wish, past simple) Example: I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) Present wish expresses an imaginary situation impossible to happen. If only
=
wish Past wish: (wish, past perfect) Example: I wish I
hadn’t eaten
so much. (I ate a lot.)Past wish expresses a regret about a situation happened in the past. Future wish: (wish, would
+

stem (a verb without “to”))
Example: I wish I would stop smoking. Can
=
could (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)Future wish expresses impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. Wish
=

+
verb in past simple
Had better
Had better is used to express adviceHad better
=
should
=
ought to Had better
+

stem (a verb without “to”)
Example: you had better work hard to pass your final exam. Negative form: Had
better not +stem (a verb without “to”)
. Example: you look tired, you had better not go to schooltoday.
Result
Expressing results we use:
-Subject
+
verb
+
so
+
adjective
+
that
+
the rest of the sentence. Example: copies of brand are so cheap that some
consumers don’t hesitate to
buy them. -Subject
+
verb
+
such
+
a noun phrase
+
that
+
therest of the sentence. Example: It was such a good film that I watched ittwice. We canexpress results using other link word:

Cause
Expressing causes: we use:

-

Sentence
+

+
subject
+
verb

Example: - He succeeded in his exam because he had worked hard. - The audience cheered as it was a good play. -

Sentence
+

+
noun phrase. Example: - She succeeded in his exam because of her work hard. - I had to ask for help because of thedifficult of the question.

You're reading a preview. Unlock full access with a free trial.
Pages 2 to 11 are not shown in this preview.
Download With Free Trial

Summary of English language lessonsModals
These modals express: -

Strong obligation


Prohibition “forbidden”


Necessity




Lack (absence) of obligation -



As a past of verb called participle. Examples:
I’m
waiting
, I’m
playing.


As a noun or gerund.
Example: The eating
of GMF’s might harmful.


As an adjective. Example: This book is more interesting than that one.
Stative (state) & action verb
A state verb: is a verb which describes a states (has not awell defined beginning & the end) Examples: like, agree, believe, dislike, deserve, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, dread, and mind.

A state verb is usually use in the present form

A state verb can’t be progressive
(Continuous
form (“ing” form)).
An action verb: is a verb which describes an action or anevent (has a specific beginning & the end). Examples: go, stop, come, start, achieve, write, win,Describe, Search, and Replace.


An action verb can be used in simple and continuous
form (“ing” form)
(progressive)
Prefix & suffix
Prefix: it comes before the word and changes its meaning. -

OppositesAgree

disagree Moral

immoral Legal

illegal Fair

unfair Direct

indirect Responsible

ir responsible Suffix: it comes after the word and changes its form to anadjective, an adverb, a noun, a verb. Exam

ple: -

The suffix “
ty
” is added to an adjective to form a noun
. Stupid

Stupidity -

The suffix “
y
” is
added to a noun to form an adjective.
Spice

Spicy Conditionals
We have four types of conditionals:Type zero: T
0
If
+
Verb in present simple, Verb in present simple. Eg: If you heat water, it boils.



T
0
is used to describe a general or scientific truth.Type one: T
1
If
+
Verb in present simple, verb in future (will
+
stem)Eg: If she works hard, she will go to university.


The situation in T
1
is possible to happen.Type two: T
2
If
+
Verb in past simple, would
+
stem Eg: If I were you, I would buy a car.


The situation in T
2
is impossible to happen (animaginary situation).


You're Reading a Preview

Unlock full access with a free trial.
Download With Free Trial

Summary of English language lessons
Type three: T
3
If
+
Verb in past perfect, would have
+
past participleE

g: If I had read the question well, I would have taken the best mark.


The situation in T
3
is a regret about an event that hadhappened in the past
Quantifiers
-

for countable nouns.-

for uncountable nouns.-


for countable & uncountable nouns(both).

(It’s the
right quantity).
=


(It isn’t the right quantity)
. The excessive and the insufficient of something:An excessive amount:


An insufficient amount:

Used for & Used to

are verbs used to describe purpose and function of objects


Used to
+
stem
(a verb without “to”)
E

g:
It’s used to cut wood.



Used for
+
verb
+
ing (gerund) Eg:
It’s used for cutting wood.

How …?

How: is a word question used for ask about dimension andsize of objects. -
How tall…?
-
How long…?
-
How high…?
-
How far…?
-
How fast…?
-
How deep…?
-
How wide…?
-
How much…?


HeightHeightHeightDistanceSpeedDepth WidthWeight
Content & structure (function) words
Sentences contain two kind of word: Content words: are necessary and contain the meaning. -
Main verb (play, go, work…).
-Nouns. -
Adjectives (serious, nice…).
-
Adverbs (carefully, quickly…).
-
Demonstratives pronouns (this, that…).
-Negative
auxiliaries (wasn’t, couldn’t…).
-Yes, No (auxiliary) questions. -Wh questions. Structure (function) words: they make the sentences correctgrammatically. -
Pronouns (I, he, they…)
. - Prepositions
(on, the, at, to, under…)
. -Articles (a, an, the). -Conjunctions
(but, and, because…)
. -
Auxiliary verbs (is, are, do, have, can…)
. Note:

Content words are stressed.Structure words are not stressed.
Comparatives & superlatives
Comparatives We must have two elements to compare. -

Superiority Short adjectives: adjectives of one syllableAdj
+
er
+
than (Eg: she is taller than me.) Long adjectives: adjectives of two or more syllables More
+
adj
+
than (Eg: meat is more expensive than chicken.) -

Equality As
+
adj
+
as (she is as intelligent as her brother.) -

Inferiority: Less
+
adj
+
than (he is less intelligent than me.) Not as
+
adj
+
as (our garden is not as large as yours). Not so



.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

ملخص دروس اللغة الإنجليزية

تأليف: ياسين للأبد


      ملخص دروس اللغة الإنجليزية

      تأليف:

      ياسين للأبد

     
ملخص اللغة الإنجليزية lessonsCondition
يمكنك أن تستقل سيارتي شريطة أن
 
كنت
لا
 يلحق الضرر به. (فقرة رئيسية) (فقرة ثانوية)
المعنى: سأعيرك سيارتي بشرط ألا تتلفها.
الفعل في المستقبل

verb in present simple
Wishes
Present wish: (wish, past simple) Example: I wish I spoke Italian. (I don't speak Italian.) Present wish expresses an imaginary situation impossible to happen. If only
=
 wish Past wish: (wish, past perfect) Example: I wish I
hadn’t eaten
 so much. (I ate a lot.)Past wish expresses a regret about a situation happened in the past. Future wish: (wish, would
+
 
stem (a verb without “to”))
Example: I wish I would stop smoking. Can
=
 could (You are smoking at the moment and it is annoying me.)Future wish expresses impatience, annoyance or dissatisfaction with a present action. Wish
=

+
 verb in past simple
Had better 
Had better is used to express adviceHad better
=
 should
=
 ought to Had better
+
 
stem (a verb without “to”)
 Example: you had better work hard to pass your final exam. Negative form: Had
 better not +stem (a verb without “to”)
. Example: you look tired, you had better not go to schooltoday.
Result
Expressing results we use:
-Subject
+
 verb
+
 so
+
 adjective
+
 that
+
 the rest of the sentence. Example: copies of brand are so cheap that some
consumers don’t hesitate to
 buy them. -Subject
+
 verb
+
 such
+
 a noun phrase
+
 that
+
 therest of the sentence. Example: It was such a good film that I watched ittwice. We canexpress results using other link word:

Cause
Expressing causes: we use:

-
 
Sentence
+

+
 subject
+
 verb

Example: - He succeeded in his exam because he had worked hard. - The audience cheered as it was a good play. -
 
Sentence
+

 
+
 noun phrase. Example: - She succeeded in his exam because of her work hard. - I had to ask for help because of thedifficult of the question.

You're reading a preview. Unlock full access with a free trial. 
Pages 2 to 11 are not shown in this preview.
Download With Free Trial
 
Summary of English language lessonsModals
These modals express: -


 Strong obligation
 

 

 
Prohibition “forbidden”
-

 

 

 Necessity
 
-





 

 
⟼
 Lack (absence) of obligation -
 

 


⟼
 Advice
 
-
 
 ⟼
 Remote possibility
(15%)
-
 
 ⟼
 Possibility
(50%)

 
 
 Probability
(80%)
-
 
 
 

 Certainty
(100%)
 
The “in
 
g” for 
m:
 
As a past of verb called  participle. Examples:
I’m
waiting
, I’m
 playing.

 
As a noun or gerund.
Example: The eating
of GMF’s might harmful.
 

 
As an adjective. Example: This book is more interesting than that one.
Stative (state) & action verb
A state verb: is a verb which describes a states (has not awell defined beginning & the end) Examples: like, agree, believe, dislike, deserve, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, dread, and mind.

A state verb is usually use in the present form

A state verb can’t be progressive
(Continuous
form (“ing” form)).
 An action verb: is a verb which describes an action or anevent (has a specific beginning & the end). Examples: go, stop, come, start, achieve, write, win,Describe, Search, and Replace.

 
An action verb can be used in simple and continuous
form (“ing” form)
 (progressive)
Prefix & suffix
Prefix: it comes before the word and changes its meaning. -
 
OppositesAgree

 disagree Moral

 immoral Legal

 illegal Fair

 unfair Direct

 indirect Responsible

ir responsible Suffix: it comes after the word and changes its form to anadjective, an adverb, a noun, a verb. Exam
 
 ple: -
 
The suffix “
ty
” is added to an adjective to form a noun
. Stupid

 Stupidity -
 
The suffix “
y
” is
added to a noun to form an adjective.
Spice

 Spicy Conditionals
We have four types of conditionals:Type zero: T
0
If
+
 Verb in  present simple, Verb in  present simple. Eg: If you heat water, it boils.
 

 
T
0
 is used to describe a general or scientific truth.Type one: T
1
If
+
 Verb in  present simple, verb in future (will
+
 stem)Eg: If she works hard, she will go to university.

 
The situation in T
1
 is possible to happen.Type two: T
2
If
+
 Verb in  past simple, would
+
 stem Eg: If I were you, I would buy a car.

 
The situation in T
2
 is impossible to happen (animaginary situation).


You're Reading a Preview

Unlock full access with a free trial.
Download With Free Trial
 
Summary of English language lessons
Type three: T
3
If
+
 Verb in  past perfect, would have
+
  past participleE
 
g: If I had read the question well, I would have taken the  best mark.

 
The situation in T
3
 is a regret about an event that hadhappened in the past
Quantifiers
-
 
  
for countable nouns.-
 

 for uncountable nouns.-
 

 

 

 for countable & uncountable nouns(both).
=
 
(It’s the
 right quantity).
=

 
(It isn’t the right quantity)
. The excessive and the insufficient of something:An excessive amount:

 
An insufficient amount:
 
Used for & Used to
 
are verbs used to describe purpose and function of objects

 
Used to
+
 stem
(a verb without “to”)
 E
 
g:
It’s used to cut wood.
 

 
Used for
+
 verb
+
ing (gerund) Eg:
It’s used for cutting wood.
 
How …?
 
How: is a word question used for ask about dimension andsize of objects. -
How tall…?
 -
How long…?
 -
How high…?
 -
How far…?
 -
How fast…?
 -
How deep…?
 -
How wide…?
 -
How much…?
 

 HeightHeightHeightDistanceSpeedDepth WidthWeight
Content & structure (function) words
Sentences contain two kind of word: Content words: are necessary and contain the meaning. -
Main verb (play, go, work…).
 -Nouns. -
Adjectives (serious, nice…).
 -
Adverbs (carefully, quickly…).
 -
Demonstratives pronouns (this, that…).
 -Negative
auxiliaries (wasn’t, couldn’t…).
 -Yes, No (auxiliary) questions. -Wh questions. Structure (function) words: they make the sentences correctgrammatically. -
Pronouns (I, he, they…)
. - Prepositions
(on, the, at, to, under…)
. -Articles (a, an, the). -Conjunctions
(but, and, because…)
. -
Auxiliary verbs (is, are, do, have, can…)
.  Note:

Content words are stressed.Structure words are not stressed.
Comparatives & superlatives
Comparatives We must have two elements to compare. -
 
Superiority Short adjectives: adjectives of one syllableAdj
+
 er
+
 than (Eg: she is taller than me.) Long adjectives: adjectives of two or more syllables More
+
 adj
+
 than (Eg: meat is more expensive than chicken.) -
 
Equality As
+
 adj
+
 as (she is as intelligent as her brother.) -
 
Inferiority: Less
+
 adj
+
 than (he is less intelligent than me.)  Not as
+
 صفة
+
 مثل (حديقتنا ليست كبيرة مثل حديقتك). ليس ذلك
+
 صفة
+
 كما

أنت تقرأ معاينة

افتح الوصول الكامل مع نسخة تجريبية مجانية.
تنزيل مع
نسخة تجريبية مجانية تقرأ معاينة

افتح الوصول الكامل مع نسخة تجريبية مجانية.
تنزيل مع
نسخة تجريبية مجانية تقرأ معاينة

افتح الوصول الكامل مع نسخة تجريبية مجانية.
تنزيل مع نسخة تجريبية مجانية
 



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