❞ كتاب Modern Analytic Chemistry ❝

❞ كتاب Modern Analytic Chemistry ❝

Modern Analytical Chemistry

Modern Analytical Chemistry is a one-semester introductory text that meets the needs of all instructors. With coverage in both traditional topics and modern-day topics, instructors will have the flexibilty to customize their course into what they feel is necessary for their students to comprehend the concepts of analytical chemistry.

Contents Contents

Preface xii
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
1A What is Analytical Chemistry? 2
1B The Analytical Perspective 5
1C Common Analytical Problems 8
1D Key Terms 9
1E Summary 9
1F Problems 9
1G Suggested Readings 10
1H References 10
Chapter 2
Basic Tools of Analytical Chemistry 11
2A Numbers in Analytical Chemistry 12
2A.1 Fundamental Units of Measure 12
2A.2 Significant Figures 13
2B Units for Expressing Concentration 15
2B.1 Molarity and Formality 15
2B.2 Normality 16
2B.3 Molality 18
2B.4 Weight, Volume, and Weight-to-Volume
Ratios 18
2B.5 Converting Between Concentration Units 18
2B.6 p-Functions 19
2C Stoichiometric Calculations 20
2C.1 Conservation of Mass 22
2C.2 Conservation of Charge 22
2C.3 Conservation of Protons 22
2C.4 Conservation of Electron Pairs 23

2C.5 Conservation of Electrons 23
2C.6 Using Conservation Principles in
Stoichiometry Problems 23
2D Basic Equipment and Instrumentation 25
2D.1 Instrumentation for Measuring Mass 25
2D.2 Equipment for Measuring Volume 26
2D.3 Equipment for Drying Samples 29
2E Preparing Solutions 30
2E.1 Preparing Stock Solutions 30
2E.2 Preparing Solutions by Dilution 31
2F The Laboratory Notebook 32
2G Key Terms 32
2H Summary 33
2I Problems 33
2J Suggested Readings 34
2K References 34
Chapter 3
The Language of Analytical Chemistry 35
3A Analysis, Determination, and Measurement 36
3B Techniques, Methods, Procedures, and
Protocols 36
3C Classifying Analytical Techniques 37
3D Selecting an Analytical Method 38
3D.1 Accuracy 38
3D.2 Precision 39
3D.3 Sensitivity 39
3D.4 Selectivity 40
3D.5 Robustness and Ruggedness 42
3D.6 Scale of Operation 42
3D.7 Equipment, Time, and Cost 44
3D.8 Making the Final Choice 44

1400-Fm 9/9/99 7:37 AM Page iii

iv Modern Analytical Chemistry

4E.4 Errors in Significance Testing 84
4F Statistical Methods for Normal Distributions 85
4F.1 Comparing –
X to μ 85
4F.2 Comparing s2 to σ2 87
4F.3 Comparing Two Sample Variances 88
4F.4 Comparing Two Sample Means 88
4F.5 Outliers 93
4G Detection Limits 95
4H Key Terms 96
4I Summary 96
4J Suggested Experiments 97
4K Problems 98 -
من كتب علمية - مكتبة الكتب العلمية.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Modern Analytic Chemistry

2000م - 1443هـ
Modern Analytical Chemistry

Modern Analytical Chemistry is a one-semester introductory text that meets the needs of all instructors. With coverage in both traditional topics and modern-day topics, instructors will have the flexibilty to customize their course into what they feel is necessary for their students to comprehend the concepts of analytical chemistry.

Contents Contents

Preface xii
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
1A What is Analytical Chemistry? 2
1B The Analytical Perspective 5
1C Common Analytical Problems 8
1D Key Terms 9
1E Summary 9
1F Problems 9
1G Suggested Readings 10
1H References 10
Chapter 2
Basic Tools of Analytical Chemistry 11
2A Numbers in Analytical Chemistry 12
2A.1 Fundamental Units of Measure 12
2A.2 Significant Figures 13
2B Units for Expressing Concentration 15
2B.1 Molarity and Formality 15
2B.2 Normality 16
2B.3 Molality 18
2B.4 Weight, Volume, and Weight-to-Volume
Ratios 18
2B.5 Converting Between Concentration Units 18
2B.6 p-Functions 19
2C Stoichiometric Calculations 20
2C.1 Conservation of Mass 22
2C.2 Conservation of Charge 22
2C.3 Conservation of Protons 22
2C.4 Conservation of Electron Pairs 23

2C.5 Conservation of Electrons 23
2C.6 Using Conservation Principles in
Stoichiometry Problems 23
2D Basic Equipment and Instrumentation 25
2D.1 Instrumentation for Measuring Mass 25
2D.2 Equipment for Measuring Volume 26
2D.3 Equipment for Drying Samples 29
2E Preparing Solutions 30
2E.1 Preparing Stock Solutions 30
2E.2 Preparing Solutions by Dilution 31
2F The Laboratory Notebook 32
2G Key Terms 32
2H Summary 33
2I Problems 33
2J Suggested Readings 34
2K References 34
Chapter 3
The Language of Analytical Chemistry 35
3A Analysis, Determination, and Measurement 36
3B Techniques, Methods, Procedures, and
Protocols 36
3C Classifying Analytical Techniques 37
3D Selecting an Analytical Method 38
3D.1 Accuracy 38
3D.2 Precision 39
3D.3 Sensitivity 39
3D.4 Selectivity 40
3D.5 Robustness and Ruggedness 42
3D.6 Scale of Operation 42
3D.7 Equipment, Time, and Cost 44
3D.8 Making the Final Choice 44

1400-Fm 9/9/99 7:37 AM Page iii

iv Modern Analytical Chemistry

4E.4 Errors in Significance Testing 84
4F Statistical Methods for Normal Distributions 85
4F.1 Comparing –
X to μ 85
4F.2 Comparing s2 to σ2 87
4F.3 Comparing Two Sample Variances 88
4F.4 Comparing Two Sample Means 88
4F.5 Outliers 93
4G Detection Limits 95
4H Key Terms 96
4I Summary 96
4J Suggested Experiments 97
4K Problems 98
.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

Modern Analytic Chemistry من كتب علمية

Modern Analytic Chemistry من كتب علمية 


Contents Contents

Preface xii
Chapter 1
Introduction 1
1A What is Analytical Chemistry? 2
1B The Analytical Perspective 5
1C Common Analytical Problems 8
1D Key Terms 9
1E Summary 9
1F Problems 9
1G Suggested Readings 10
1H References 10
Chapter 2
Basic Tools of Analytical Chemistry 11
2A Numbers in Analytical Chemistry 12
2A.1 Fundamental Units of Measure 12
2A.2 Significant Figures 13
2B Units for Expressing Concentration 15
2B.1 Molarity and Formality 15
2B.2 Normality 16
2B.3 Molality 18
2B.4 Weight, Volume, and Weight-to-Volume
Ratios 18
2B.5 Converting Between Concentration Units 18
2B.6 p-Functions 19
2C Stoichiometric Calculations 20
2C.1 Conservation of Mass 22
2C.2 Conservation of Charge 22
2C.3 Conservation of Protons 22
2C.4 Conservation of Electron Pairs 23

2C.5 Conservation of Electrons 23
2C.6 Using Conservation Principles in
Stoichiometry Problems 23
2D Basic Equipment and Instrumentation 25
2D.1 Instrumentation for Measuring Mass 25
2D.2 Equipment for Measuring Volume 26
2D.3 Equipment for Drying Samples 29
2E Preparing Solutions 30
2E.1 Preparing Stock Solutions 30
2E.2 Preparing Solutions by Dilution 31
2F The Laboratory Notebook 32
2G Key Terms 32
2H Summary 33
2I Problems 33
2J Suggested Readings 34
2K References 34
Chapter 3
The Language of Analytical Chemistry 35
3A Analysis, Determination, and Measurement 36
3B Techniques, Methods, Procedures, and
Protocols 36
3C Classifying Analytical Techniques 37
3D Selecting an Analytical Method 38
3D.1 Accuracy 38
3D.2 Precision 39
3D.3 Sensitivity 39
3D.4 Selectivity 40
3D.5 Robustness and Ruggedness 42
3D.6 Scale of Operation 42
3D.7 Equipment, Time, and Cost 44
3D.8 Making the Final Choice 44

1400-Fm 9/9/99 7:37 AM Page iii

iv Modern Analytical Chemistry

4E.4 Errors in Significance Testing 84
4F Statistical Methods for Normal Distributions 85
4F.1 Comparing –
X to μ 85
4F.2 Comparing s2 to σ2 87
4F.3 Comparing Two Sample Variances 88
4F.4 Comparing Two Sample Means 88
4F.5 Outliers 93
4G Detection Limits 95
4H Key Terms 96
4I Summary 96
4J Suggested Experiments 97
4K Problems 98
4L Suggested Readings 102
4M References 102
Chapter 5
Calibrations, Standardizations,
and Blank Corrections 104
5A Calibrating Signals 105
5B Standardizing Methods 106
5B.1 Reagents Used as Standards 106
5B.2 Single-Point versus Multiple-Point
Standardizations 108
5B.3 External Standards 109
5B.4 Standard Additions 110
5B.5 Internal Standards 115
5C Linear Regression and Calibration Curves 117
5C.1 Linear Regression of Straight-Line Calibration
Curves 118
5C.2 Unweighted Linear Regression with Errors
in y 119
5C.3 Weighted Linear Regression with Errors
in y 124
5C.4 Weighted Linear Regression with Errors
in Both x and y 127
5C.5 Curvilinear and Multivariate
Regression 127
5D Blank Corrections 128
5E Key Terms 130
5F Summary 130
5G Suggested Experiments 130
5H Problems 131
5I Suggested Readings 133
5J References 134

3E Developing the Procedure 45
3E.1 Compensating for Interferences 45
3E.2 Calibration and Standardization 47
3E.3 Sampling 47
3E.4 Validation 47
3F Protocols 48
3G The Importance of Analytical Methodology 48
3H Key Terms 50
3I Summary 50
3J Problems 51
3K Suggested Readings 52
3L References 52
Chapter 4
Evaluating Analytical Data 53
4A Characterizing Measurements and Results 54
4A.1 Measures of Central Tendency 54
4A.2 Measures of Spread 55
4B Characterizing Experimental Errors 57
4B.1 Accuracy 57
4B.2 Precision 62
4B.3 Error and Uncertainty 64
4C Propagation of Uncertainty 64
4C.1 A Few Symbols 65
4C.2 Uncertainty When Adding or Subtracting 65
4C.3 Uncertainty When Multiplying or
Dividing 66
4C.4 Uncertainty for Mixed Operations 66
4C.5 Uncertainty for Other Mathematical
Functions 67
4C.6 Is Calculating Uncertainty Actually Useful? 68
4D The Distribution of Measurements and
Results 70
4D.1 Populations and Samples 71
4D.2 Probability Distributions for Populations 71
4D.3 Confidence Intervals for Populations 75
4D.4 Probability Distributions for Samples 77
4D.5 Confidence Intervals for Samples 80
4D.6 A Cautionary Statement 81
4E Statistical Analysis of Data 82
4E.1 Significance Testing 82
4E.2 Constructing a Significance Test 83
4E.3 One-Tailed and Two-Tailed Significance
Tests 84

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سنة النشر : 2000م / 1421هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 11 ميجا بايت .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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