❞ كتاب VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝  ⏤ احمد على الامام

❞ كتاب VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝ ⏤ احمد على الامام

This book has multiple significance and is related to diverse fields of interest. Therefore, its subject occupies a distinctive place in the field of Qur'anic studies in particular, and Islamic studies in general. Moreover, this is a subject that, at times transcends the field of essential or funda- mental Islamic studies and moves into the sphere of subjects like language, rhetoric, and logic. There are a number of possible approaches to deal with this subject, and it is essential to distinguish between them and then to choose the best. For example, one may study the relationship between the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet; the essential differences between the Book and the Sunnah; the Arabic language and its capacity for expressing, with power, divine revelation; the extent to which the human tongue is capable of deal- ing with a language that served as a conduit for the Divine, in terms of the ease or difficulty of pronunciation or understanding; or its capacity to deal with, and to comprehend, the changes that inevitably occur in the organi- zation, style, expressiveness, and illimitability of languages. Some of the most important issues to be dealt with in this field have come to us through hadith narrations of varying degrees of authenticity (or the lack thereof), particularly those concerning the plurality of Qur'anic recitations, the ways that these were passed down, and the relative renown of each. Witness, for example, the hadith concerning the "seven letters" and the many different narrations in its support. Thus, it is fitting that our approach to this book be the study of the relationship between the Blessed Book and the Sunnah of the Prophet. In doing so, I hope that I may pro- vide a framework from which to read and understand this book appropri- ately. Imam Shafi'i defined the relationship between the Book and the Sunnah in a very precise manner, though most scholars, owing to their pre- occupation with jurisprudence, have not paid attention to the subtleties in his definition. Thus, most interpretations of Imam Shafi'i's definition of that relationship are less than satisfactory. In his work on jurisprudence, AI Risa/iih, Imam Shafi'i explained the place of the Sunnah in terms of eluci- xiii dation, or bayan. As such, the Sunnah represents one form among many that brings lucidity to the Qur'an. At times, the Qur'an is perfectly clear, immediately apparent, and requires no further elucidation. At other times, the meaning of its verses is explained by other verses, or the meaning is interpreted over the course of time. In most instances, however, the mean- ing is clarified by means of the Sunnah, either by word or in deed. This is because the basic function of the Sunnah is to elucidate. Furthermore, the elucidator is subservient to the elucidated which, in this case, equates with the text of the Qur'an.

هذا الكتاب له أهمية متعددة ويرتبط بمجالات اهتمام متنوعة. لذلك يحتل موضوعه مكانة مميزة في مجال الدراسات القرآنية بشكل خاص ، والدراسات الإسلامية بشكل عام. علاوة على ذلك ، هذا موضوع يتجاوز أحيانًا مجال الدراسات الإسلامية الأساسية أو الأساسية وينتقل إلى مجال مواضيع مثل اللغة والبلاغة والمنطق. هناك عدد من الأساليب الممكنة للتعامل مع هذا الموضوع ، ومن الضروري التمييز بينها ثم اختيار الأفضل. على سبيل المثال ، يمكن دراسة العلاقة بين القرآن والسنة النبوية. الفروق الجوهرية بين الكتاب والسنة. اللغة العربية وقدرتها على التعبير بقوة عن الوحي الإلهي. مدى قدرة اللسان البشري على التعامل مع لغة كانت بمثابة قناة للإله ، من حيث سهولة أو صعوبة النطق أو الفهم ؛ أو قدرتها على التعامل مع وفهم التغييرات التي تحدث لا محالة في تنظيم اللغات وأسلوبها والتعبير عنها وعدم قابليتها للحدود. لقد جاءت إلينا بعض أهم القضايا التي يجب تناولها في هذا المجال من خلال روايات الأحاديث بدرجات متفاوتة من المصداقية (أو عدم وجودها) ، لا سيما تلك المتعلقة بتعدد التلاوات القرآنية ، وطرق تناقلها. ، والشهرة النسبية لكل منهما. شاهد ، على سبيل المثال ، الحديث عن "الأحرف السبعة" والروايات العديدة المختلفة التي تدعمه. وبالتالي ، فمن المناسب أن يكون نهجنا في هذا الكتاب هو دراسة العلاقة بين الكتاب المبارك والسنة النبوية. وبفعل ذلك ، آمل أن أقدم إطارًا يمكن من خلاله قراءة هذا الكتاب وفهمه بشكل مناسب. عرّف الإمام الشافعي العلاقة بين الكتاب والسنة بطريقة دقيقة للغاية ، على الرغم من أن معظم العلماء ، بحكم انشغالهم بالفقه ، لم يلتفتوا إلى التفاصيل الدقيقة في تعريفه. وبالتالي ، فإن معظم تفسيرات تعريف الإمام الشافعي لتلك العلاقة أقل من مُرضية. شرح الإمام الشافعي في عمله في الفقه ، الرضا ، مكان السنة النبوية من حيث التفسير ، أو البيان. على هذا النحو ، فإن السنة النبوية تمثل أحد الأشكال التي تجلب وضوح القرآن. في بعض الأحيان ، يكون القرآن واضحًا تمامًا ، وظاهرًا على الفور ، ولا يحتاج إلى مزيد من التوضيح. في أوقات أخرى ، تشرح آيات أخرى معنى آياتها ، أو يتم تفسير المعنى على مدار الوقت. ومع ذلك ، فإن المعنى يتضح في أغلب الأحوال بالسنة ، سواء بالقول أو الفعل. وذلك لأن الوظيفة الأساسية للسنة هي التوضيح. علاوة على ذلك ، فإن المفسر تابع لما تم توضيحه والذي ، في هذه الحالة ، يعادل نص القرآن.
احمد على الامام - حمد علي الإمام( 1945-2012)..عالم دين سوداني ولد بمدينة دُنْقُلا بشمالي السودان، (1364هـ - 1945



نشاته وتعليمه

تلقى تعليمه في المرحلة الابتدائية بمعهد دنقلا العلمي وتلقى تعليمه الثانوي في معهد أم درمان العلمي، بأم درمان تخرج من جامعة أم درمان الإسلامية عام 1974 - حفظ القرآن يافعاً في خلوة الشيخ صالح علي الأزهري، تعلَّم على يد الشيخ محمد إبراهيم الطيب، وتلقى علوم الفقه واللغة على يد والده الشيخ علي الإمام، ثم على علماء عصره - حصل على درجة الدكتوراه من جامعة أدنبرا، بريطانيا، في علوم القرآن، مع عناية خاصة بنقد أعمال المستشرقين في لغويات وتاريخ القرآن.
الوظائف التي شغلها
عمل محاضراً بجامعة أم درمان الإسلامية.
عمل في وزارة التربية والتعليم معلمًا بمدارسها الثانوية في دنقلا ومدني.
عمل بالتدريس في الكلية الإسلامية في زنجبار بتنزانيا، وحقل الدعوة الإسلامية بشرق إفريقيا (1974- 1978م).
عمل محاضرًا بجامعة أم درمان الإسلامية منذ 1979م، ثم انتقل للعمل لفترة محاضرًا بجامعة أدنبرة.
عمل مديرًا للمركز الإسلامي بأدنبرة، ورئيسًا لاتحاد الطلاب المسلمين في جامعات أدنبرا، ثم كان رئيسًا لاتحاد طلاب الدراسات العليا في جامعة أدنبرا.
عمل مديراً لجامعة القرآن الكريم والعلوم الإسلامية في السودان. الوظائف التنفيذية التي تقلدها:
شغل منصب الأمين العام لهيئة علماء السودان .
ثم عمل مديرًا لجامعة القرآن الكريم والعلوم الإسلامية في السودان .
ثم شغل منصب رئيس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي السوداني.
ثم عمل مستشارًا لرئيس الجمهورية لشئون التأصيل والتخطيط الإستراتيجي منذ مارس 1998م حتى الفترات الأخيرة لوفاته حتى أُعفي منها نسبة لمعاناته مع المرض الذي ألزمه الفراش الأبيض منذ العام 2011م حتى وافته المنية اليوم الثلاثاء الـ30من أكتوبر للعام2012










❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝ ❞ VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR AN A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝ ❱
من كتب علوم القرآن القرءان الكريم وعلومه - مكتبة كتب إسلامية.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS

1998م - 1442هـ
This book has multiple significance and is related to diverse fields of interest. Therefore, its subject occupies a distinctive place in the field of Qur'anic studies in particular, and Islamic studies in general. Moreover, this is a subject that, at times transcends the field of essential or funda- mental Islamic studies and moves into the sphere of subjects like language, rhetoric, and logic. There are a number of possible approaches to deal with this subject, and it is essential to distinguish between them and then to choose the best. For example, one may study the relationship between the Quran and the Sunnah of the Prophet; the essential differences between the Book and the Sunnah; the Arabic language and its capacity for expressing, with power, divine revelation; the extent to which the human tongue is capable of deal- ing with a language that served as a conduit for the Divine, in terms of the ease or difficulty of pronunciation or understanding; or its capacity to deal with, and to comprehend, the changes that inevitably occur in the organi- zation, style, expressiveness, and illimitability of languages. Some of the most important issues to be dealt with in this field have come to us through hadith narrations of varying degrees of authenticity (or the lack thereof), particularly those concerning the plurality of Qur'anic recitations, the ways that these were passed down, and the relative renown of each. Witness, for example, the hadith concerning the "seven letters" and the many different narrations in its support. Thus, it is fitting that our approach to this book be the study of the relationship between the Blessed Book and the Sunnah of the Prophet. In doing so, I hope that I may pro- vide a framework from which to read and understand this book appropri- ately. Imam Shafi'i defined the relationship between the Book and the Sunnah in a very precise manner, though most scholars, owing to their pre- occupation with jurisprudence, have not paid attention to the subtleties in his definition. Thus, most interpretations of Imam Shafi'i's definition of that relationship are less than satisfactory. In his work on jurisprudence, AI Risa/iih, Imam Shafi'i explained the place of the Sunnah in terms of eluci- xiii dation, or bayan. As such, the Sunnah represents one form among many that brings lucidity to the Qur'an. At times, the Qur'an is perfectly clear, immediately apparent, and requires no further elucidation. At other times, the meaning of its verses is explained by other verses, or the meaning is interpreted over the course of time. In most instances, however, the mean- ing is clarified by means of the Sunnah, either by word or in deed. This is because the basic function of the Sunnah is to elucidate. Furthermore, the elucidator is subservient to the elucidated which, in this case, equates with the text of the Qur'an.

هذا الكتاب له أهمية متعددة ويرتبط بمجالات اهتمام متنوعة. لذلك يحتل موضوعه مكانة مميزة في مجال الدراسات القرآنية بشكل خاص ، والدراسات الإسلامية بشكل عام. علاوة على ذلك ، هذا موضوع يتجاوز أحيانًا مجال الدراسات الإسلامية الأساسية أو الأساسية وينتقل إلى مجال مواضيع مثل اللغة والبلاغة والمنطق. هناك عدد من الأساليب الممكنة للتعامل مع هذا الموضوع ، ومن الضروري التمييز بينها ثم اختيار الأفضل. على سبيل المثال ، يمكن دراسة العلاقة بين القرآن والسنة النبوية. الفروق الجوهرية بين الكتاب والسنة. اللغة العربية وقدرتها على التعبير بقوة عن الوحي الإلهي. مدى قدرة اللسان البشري على التعامل مع لغة كانت بمثابة قناة للإله ، من حيث سهولة أو صعوبة النطق أو الفهم ؛ أو قدرتها على التعامل مع وفهم التغييرات التي تحدث لا محالة في تنظيم اللغات وأسلوبها والتعبير عنها وعدم قابليتها للحدود. لقد جاءت إلينا بعض أهم القضايا التي يجب تناولها في هذا المجال من خلال روايات الأحاديث بدرجات متفاوتة من المصداقية (أو عدم وجودها) ، لا سيما تلك المتعلقة بتعدد التلاوات القرآنية ، وطرق تناقلها. ، والشهرة النسبية لكل منهما. شاهد ، على سبيل المثال ، الحديث عن "الأحرف السبعة" والروايات العديدة المختلفة التي تدعمه. وبالتالي ، فمن المناسب أن يكون نهجنا في هذا الكتاب هو دراسة العلاقة بين الكتاب المبارك والسنة النبوية. وبفعل ذلك ، آمل أن أقدم إطارًا يمكن من خلاله قراءة هذا الكتاب وفهمه بشكل مناسب. عرّف الإمام الشافعي العلاقة بين الكتاب والسنة بطريقة دقيقة للغاية ، على الرغم من أن معظم العلماء ، بحكم انشغالهم بالفقه ، لم يلتفتوا إلى التفاصيل الدقيقة في تعريفه. وبالتالي ، فإن معظم تفسيرات تعريف الإمام الشافعي لتلك العلاقة أقل من مُرضية. شرح الإمام الشافعي في عمله في الفقه ، الرضا ، مكان السنة النبوية من حيث التفسير ، أو البيان. على هذا النحو ، فإن السنة النبوية تمثل أحد الأشكال التي تجلب وضوح القرآن. في بعض الأحيان ، يكون القرآن واضحًا تمامًا ، وظاهرًا على الفور ، ولا يحتاج إلى مزيد من التوضيح. في أوقات أخرى ، تشرح آيات أخرى معنى آياتها ، أو يتم تفسير المعنى على مدار الوقت. ومع ذلك ، فإن المعنى يتضح في أغلب الأحوال بالسنة ، سواء بالقول أو الفعل. وذلك لأن الوظيفة الأساسية للسنة هي التوضيح. علاوة على ذلك ، فإن المفسر تابع لما تم توضيحه والذي ، في هذه الحالة ، يعادل نص القرآن. .
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

REVELATION OF THE QuR'AN IN SEVEN A/fRUF ••••••••••••••• 3
The Meaning of Seven A}Jruf in the A}Jiidith ...................... 7
The Meaning of A}Jruf in the Arabic Language ............ 0 ••••••• 8
The Interpretation of "Seven A}Jruf" ............... 0 •••• 0 ••••••• 9

CHAPTER 2

COMPILATION OF THE QUR' AN •••••••••••••••••••••••••• 23
Compilation of the Qur'an during the Reigns of
Abii Baler and 'Uthman . 0 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 25
Methods Adopted in This Compilation .......................... 27
The Materials of Inscription of the Qur'an ....................... 29
The Sending of the Ma$ii}Jifto the Provinces ................... 0 • 30
The Dating of the Compilation of the Qur'an
in the Reign of 'Uthman ............................ 0 •••••• 32
The Validity of Abii Baler's Compilation ........................ 35
Dating the Compilation during Abii Baler's Reign ................ 0 • 36
The Number of Qurrii' Slain ................................. 37
The Arrangement of the Surahs ............................... 38
The Compilation and Arrangement of Verses in Their Surahs ........ 42
The Problem of Missing Verses ............................... 44
The Meaning of the Term Jam' a/ Qur'an ... o ••••••••••••••••••• 46
The Words Sa}Jzfah and Mu$}Jafand Their Origins ................. 48
Theory of Naskh .......................................... 49
The Sh1'ah Opinions on the Alteration of the Qur'an ............... 56
Two Alleged Episodes That Cast Doubt. ........................ 57

Vll

CHAPTER 3

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 'UTHMANIC MA$Aif/F .•.•..•••••• 65
The Ma$fi/Jif and Their Relation to the AIJruf . .................... 65
Orthography of the Ma,5a/Ji[ .. ................................ 67

CHAPTER 4
THE 'UTHMANIC MA$A/f/F AND THE PERSONAL
CODICES OF THE COMPANIONS AND THE SUCCESSORS •.••••••• 79
Categories of Divergent Readings ............................. 79
Differences Between the Ma,5a/Jif of the Am,5ar ................... 86

CHAPTER 5

THE LANGUAGE OF THE QUR'AN •.••.••••.•.•.••••••••••• 91

CHAPTER 6

THE ORIGIN OF THE Q!RA'AT . .....•...............•.... 115
The Development of the Conditions for Accepted Readings ......... 119
The Kinds of Readings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
The Successive and Anomalous Readings ...................... 128
Definition of Shadhdh ..................................... 131
Development of the Concept of Shadhdh ....................... 133
The Relationship Between the Qira'iit and the Qur'an ............. 134
The Compilation of Qirii' at and the Earliest Compilers ............ 134

CHAPTER 7

IKHTIYAR IN THE Q!RJ.'J.T AND ITS BASES ••••.••••••••..... 141
Refutation of Free Exercise of Choice in Selection
of Readings ........................................... 143
The 'Uthmanic Ma,5ii/Jif and the Problem of Grammatical
or Orthographical Errors ................................. 157
CoNCLUSION •..•••••••....••••••••••.••....•.••••• 171
BIBLIOGRAPHY .••••.•....•••••••.••..•..•.••••••••• 177

 


This book has multiple significance and is related to diverse fields of
interest. Therefore, its subject occupies a distinctive place in the field of
Qur'anic studies in particular, and Islamic studies in general. Moreover,

this is a subject that, at times transcends the field of essential or funda-
mental Islamic studies and moves into the sphere of subjects like language,

rhetoric, and logic.
There are a number of possible approaches to deal with this subject,
and it is essential to distinguish between them and then to choose the best.
For example, one may study the relationship between the Quran and the
Sunnah of the Prophet; the essential differences between the Book and the
Sunnah; the Arabic language and its capacity for expressing, with power,

divine revelation; the extent to which the human tongue is capable of deal-
ing with a language that served as a conduit for the Divine, in terms of the

ease or difficulty of pronunciation or understanding; or its capacity to deal

with, and to comprehend, the changes that inevitably occur in the organi-
zation, style, expressiveness, and illimitability of languages.

Some of the most important issues to be dealt with in this field have
come to us through hadith narrations of varying degrees of authenticity (or
the lack thereof), particularly those concerning the plurality of Qur'anic
recitations, the ways that these were passed down, and the relative renown
of each. Witness, for example, the hadith concerning the "seven letters"
and the many different narrations in its support. Thus, it is fitting that our
approach to this book be the study of the relationship between the Blessed

Book and the Sunnah of the Prophet. In doing so, I hope that I may pro-
vide a framework from which to read and understand this book appropri-
ately.

Imam Shafi'i defined the relationship between the Book and the

Sunnah in a very precise manner, though most scholars, owing to their pre-
occupation with jurisprudence, have not paid attention to the subtleties in

his definition. Thus, most interpretations of Imam Shafi'i's definition of
that relationship are less than satisfactory. In his work on jurisprudence, AI

Risa/iih, Imam Shafi'i explained the place of the Sunnah in terms of eluci-
xiii

dation, or bayan. As such, the Sunnah represents one form among many
that brings lucidity to the Qur'an. At times, the Qur'an is perfectly clear,
immediately apparent, and requires no further elucidation. At other times,
the meaning of its verses is explained by other verses, or the meaning is

interpreted over the course of time. In most instances, however, the mean-
ing is clarified by means of the Sunnah, either by word or in deed. This is

because the basic function of the Sunnah is to elucidate. Furthermore, the
elucidator is subservient to the elucidated which, in this case, equates with
the text of the Qur'an.

Imam Shafi'i affirmed that the Qur'anic text occupies the highest pos-
sible place and that nothing can compare or compete with it (in terms of

its significance) other than something that is equal to it (i.e., another verse
from the Qur'an). He then went on to generate a number of particular
instances from this principle, although owing to their intricacies, many of

these, too, were misunderstood. Then, given his understanding of the rela-
tionship, and his limiting the concept of "text" or na$$ to the Qur'an alone,

he relegated the Sunnah, by considering it the Qur'an's elucidator, to sec-
ond place. Therefore, when the Sunnah is subsequent to the Qur'an, fol-
lowing it in rank, it will not be capable of abrogating the verses of the

Qur'an because the Qur'an is principal to it. In other words, the Sunnah
cannot abrogate the Qur'an because it, the Sunnah, is not the Qur'an's
equal. Rather, the Sunnah is subservient to the Qur'an and may not rise to
a place higher than to elucidate the Qur'an.
In this way, Imam Shafi'i solidified the relationship between the
Qur'an and the Sunnah. The Qur'an is principal to the Sunnah, and serves
to verify it; whereas the Sunnah will not go beyond the Qur'an, but
revolves about its axis, and derives its own legitimacy from it It is not the
place of the elucidator, then, to abrogate the elucidated, do away with it,
damage it, pass over it, add to it, subtract from it, or do anything other than
elucidate it. The elucidator elucidates and nothing more.
Imam Shafi'i's defense of the Sunnah was, in every case, to maintain
its status as a bayan or an elucidator. Most of the challenges he faced came
from people whose intention was to disengage entirely the Sunnah from
the Qur'an by stirring up issues pertaining to authenticity, like tawatur,
and meaning, like qa.f' and ?ann, so as to drive a wedge between the text
of the Qur'an and its elucidation through the Sunnah of the Prophet. In his
works, like AI Risiilah, Mukhtalif a/ lfadith, and Jamii' al '1/m, Imam

Shafi'i focussed on this objective. The Qur'an's sovereignty and its prima-
cy were very clear in his mind. It was for this reason that, when the Imam

turned to jurisprudence, he placed the Sunnah in a subservient role. Thus,

xiv

FOREWORD

he considered the Sunnah the second source for legislation in cases where
there was no apparent teaching from the Qur'an. In cases where such a
teaching existed, and the Sunnah acted to elucidate the Qur'an, there was
no need for discussion of rank, or to relegate the Sunnah to second place,
or third. So the position adopted by Imam Shafi'i on the matter was
intended to cement the foundation of the Sunnah as elucidation.
When we come to the issue at hand, or what the Sunnah has brought
to us concerning variant Qur'anic recitations, and in particular the matter
of the Qur'an's having been "revealed in seven letters," we may begin to
discuss these things from the perspective outlined above. In this manner,
we may hope, Allah willing, to reach something that we can agree on.
As the Qur'an attempts to erect a stable relationship between itself and
human beings on the one hand, and between itself and the universe on the
other, it is distinguished from every other sort of discourse known to

humans by the uniqueness of its syntax and composition. It is also distin-
guished by the ways in which it was communicated to humans. The Qur'an

was revealed to an unlettered Prophet who realized that the only means he

possessed for its preservation was his memory or his own powers of reten-
tion. Thus, you see him receiving the text and then exerting himself to the

utmost so as not to lose even a single letter or syllable. And this is despite
the repeated assurances of the Almighty that He will preserve the message,
and have it recited to the Prophet (by the angel Jibril [Gabriel]) so that he
will remember it, and that Allah will posit the message in the Prophet's

heart and preserve it there, and then explain it to him. The only responsi-
bility the Prophet had in the matter was to give himself wholly to receiv-
ing and accepting the message. Thereafter, the Divine Revealer Himself

would be responsible for collecting and ordering the Qur'an, for having it
recited to the Prophet, and for explaining everything about it. The Prophet
had only to receive the message. However, after the Qur'an was received
he had to implement its principles and provide a living example of its
teachings so as to fully elucidate its meanings.

Indeed, there is a major difference between writing down what is dic-
tated and reciting what is revealed. Dictation may be received while the

memory is at rest; all that someone is concerned with is the faithful trans-
fer between what is heard and what is written. However, when the func-
tion is to memorize by heart everything that is heard, so as to carry the

Divine message to others by means of recitation and then to have it writ-
ten down, that is clearly an entirely different matter! Under such circum-
stances, the senses, the heart, the conscious self, the mind, and the memo-
ry are in a state of interaction with the text, and in a state of extreme exer-
XV

tion. Under these circumstances, the message verv nearly becomes a part

of the listener. In this manner, the instant that the Prophet hears the reve-
lation, the battle for control of the message is immediately settled.

Thereafter, the functions of recitation, delivery, and transcribing are facil-
itated. Likewise, it becomes easier to direct the discourse to others. In this

manner, at the moment of revelation, the dialectic of text and human intel-
lect is also settled.

In addition, the oral transmission of the Message affords those who

hear it with the opportunity to familiarize their tongues with it, not to men-
tion their hearts and minds. Then, within the framework of oral transmis-
sion and narration, the recited text will sometimes allow for the plurality

of recitations. Certain tribes, for example, had become accustomed to pro-
nouncing the "a" equivalent shaded toward the "e" equivalent, while other

tribes were pronouncing doubled consonants singly, and singled conso-
nants doubly, without changing the meaning. The oral environment sur-
rounding the text lended itself to this sort of reasonable latitude and pro-
moted a sense of congeniality and familiarity which lead to the sharing of

common ground between the text and those who accepted it. At the same
time, the text retained its primacy over the language in which it had been
revealed, both in general and in terms of its various dialects. In this way,
the text made the language its mouthpiece, and prepared it for service in
promoting understanding of the text and its subsequent interpretation. It is

from this vantage point that we may view the issue of the Qur'an's "facil-
itation" by the Almighty, as articulated in the verse:

We made this Qur'an easy to bear in mind; who, then, is willing to
take it to heart? (54: 17)
Later, came the stage of recorded entry and composition by way of

preparation for the emergence of the text and its transition from oral trans-
mission to book form, circulated and standardized. Thus began a new

stage of interaction with the text-between the text and humankind on the
one hand, and the text and historical reality on the other. Thus, the text of

the Qur'an became capable of encompassing the entire universe in a com-
prehensive and absolute manner. To establish such an inimitable relation-
ship between its letters and the universe, the Qur'an's revelation took twen-
ty-three years to complete. This was followed by a period of oral trans-
mission, and then a period of collecting what was kept and memorized in

the hearts of people and recording it in writing until the Qur'an appeared
in the form of a book to be read by people and circulated among them until
it came to settle in their hearts and minds.

 

 

 

 

 


 Book VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR' AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS author :



سنة النشر : 1998م / 1419هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 8.3 ميجا بايت .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
عداد القراءة: عدد قراءة VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS

اذا اعجبك الكتاب فضلاً اضغط على أعجبني
و يمكنك تحميله من هنا:

تحميل VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS
شكرًا لمساهمتكم

شكراً لمساهمتكم معنا في الإرتقاء بمستوى المكتبة ، يمكنكم االتبليغ عن اخطاء او سوء اختيار للكتب وتصنيفها ومحتواها ، أو كتاب يُمنع نشره ، او محمي بحقوق طبع ونشر ، فضلاً قم بالتبليغ عن الكتاب المُخالف:

برنامج تشغيل ملفات pdfقبل تحميل الكتاب ..
يجب ان يتوفر لديكم برنامج تشغيل وقراءة ملفات pdf
يمكن تحميلة من هنا 'http://get.adobe.com/reader/'

المؤلف:
احمد على الامام - Ahmed Ali Imam

كتب احمد على الامام حمد علي الإمام( 1945-2012)..عالم دين سوداني ولد بمدينة دُنْقُلا بشمالي السودان، (1364هـ - 1945 نشاته وتعليمه تلقى تعليمه في المرحلة الابتدائية بمعهد دنقلا العلمي وتلقى تعليمه الثانوي في معهد أم درمان العلمي، بأم درمان تخرج من جامعة أم درمان الإسلامية عام 1974 - حفظ القرآن يافعاً في خلوة الشيخ صالح علي الأزهري، تعلَّم على يد الشيخ محمد إبراهيم الطيب، وتلقى علوم الفقه واللغة على يد والده الشيخ علي الإمام، ثم على علماء عصره - حصل على درجة الدكتوراه من جامعة أدنبرا، بريطانيا، في علوم القرآن، مع عناية خاصة بنقد أعمال المستشرقين في لغويات وتاريخ القرآن. الوظائف التي شغلها عمل محاضراً بجامعة أم درمان الإسلامية. عمل في وزارة التربية والتعليم معلمًا بمدارسها الثانوية في دنقلا ومدني. عمل بالتدريس في الكلية الإسلامية في زنجبار بتنزانيا، وحقل الدعوة الإسلامية بشرق إفريقيا (1974- 1978م). عمل محاضرًا بجامعة أم درمان الإسلامية منذ 1979م، ثم انتقل للعمل لفترة محاضرًا بجامعة أدنبرة. عمل مديرًا للمركز الإسلامي بأدنبرة، ورئيسًا لاتحاد الطلاب المسلمين في جامعات أدنبرا، ثم كان رئيسًا لاتحاد طلاب الدراسات العليا في جامعة أدنبرا. عمل مديراً لجامعة القرآن الكريم والعلوم الإسلامية في السودان. الوظائف التنفيذية التي تقلدها: شغل منصب الأمين العام لهيئة علماء السودان . ثم عمل مديرًا لجامعة القرآن الكريم والعلوم الإسلامية في السودان . ثم شغل منصب رئيس مجمع الفقه الإسلامي السوداني. ثم عمل مستشارًا لرئيس الجمهورية لشئون التأصيل والتخطيط الإستراتيجي منذ مارس 1998م حتى الفترات الأخيرة لوفاته حتى أُعفي منها نسبة لمعاناته مع المرض الذي ألزمه الفراش الأبيض منذ العام 2011م حتى وافته المنية اليوم الثلاثاء الـ30من أكتوبر للعام2012 ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR 039 AN: A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝ ❞ VARIANT READINGS OF THE QUR AN A CRITICAL STUDY OF THEIR HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC ORIGINS ❝ ❱. المزيد..

كتب احمد على الامام
برمجة المواقعتورتة عيد ميلادكتابة على تورتة الزفافحروف توبيكات مزخرفة بالعربياقتباسات ملخصات كتبالتنمية البشريةالكتب العامةحكمةخدماتقراءة و تحميل الكتبالمساعدة بالعربيكتب للأطفال مكتبة الطفلمعاني الأسماءاصنع بنفسكالكتابة عالصورأسمك عالتورتهمعنى اسمكتب الأدبكتب القانون والعلوم السياسيةمعاني الأسماءشخصيات هامة مشهورةكورسات اونلاينكورسات مجانيةالقرآن الكريم زخرفة أسامي و أسماء و حروف..كتب تعلم اللغاتكتب الطبخ و المطبخ و الديكورSwitzerland United Kingdom United States of AmericaFacebook Text Artكتابة أسماء عالصورالطب النبويزخرفة الأسماءكتابة على تورتة الخطوبةكتب التاريخزخرفة توبيكاتOnline يوتيوبكتب الروايات والقصصكتابة على تورتة مناسبات وأعيادتورتة عيد الميلادكتب السياسة والقانونحكم قصيرةكتب قصص و رواياتكتب اسلامية