❞ كتاب Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies ❝  ⏤  عثمان بن محمد نور

❞ كتاب Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies ❝ ⏤ عثمان بن محمد نور

This paper examines the scriptural bases of stoning for adultery in
the two sister religions and its implementation in contemporary Muslim
societies. Based upon archival and documentary research, this study found
that stoning to death for adultery is prescribed in both the Bible and the
Qurí...n. Christians, however, have abandoned this law and it is no longer
practiced in any Christian-dominant country. With the expansion of Western
imperialism, the same trend seems to be taking place in Muslim societies.
There are a few Muslim countries that are trying to implement this law but they
face a good deal of criticism from the Western media and other secular
organizations, consequently, shying away from implementing this punishment
in public.
Keywords: stoning for adultery, Qurí...n, Bible, Shar ëah, Muslim societies

Stoning is a form of capital punishment which applies specifically
to cases of adultery. In this form of punishment, the convicted person
is put to death by throwing stones, usually by a crowd. This practice
was seen in some cultures as allowing the larger community to take
part in the administration of justice. Stoning has been used since
ancient times to punish the convicted. Subsequently, this practice
has been criticised as ìcruelî and ìinhuman.î Some countries,
therefore, have abandoned this method replacing it with either life
imprisonment, hanging or decapitation.





Book author :
عثمان بن محمد نور - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies ❝ ❱
من كتب إسلامية بلغات أخرى - مكتبة كتب إسلامية.

نبذة عن الكتاب:
Stoning for Adultery in Christianity and Islam and its Implementation in Contemporary Muslim Societies

2010م - 1444هـ
This paper examines the scriptural bases of stoning for adultery in
the two sister religions and its implementation in contemporary Muslim
societies. Based upon archival and documentary research, this study found
that stoning to death for adultery is prescribed in both the Bible and the
Qurí...n. Christians, however, have abandoned this law and it is no longer
practiced in any Christian-dominant country. With the expansion of Western
imperialism, the same trend seems to be taking place in Muslim societies.
There are a few Muslim countries that are trying to implement this law but they
face a good deal of criticism from the Western media and other secular
organizations, consequently, shying away from implementing this punishment
in public.
Keywords: stoning for adultery, Qurí...n, Bible, Shar ëah, Muslim societies

Stoning is a form of capital punishment which applies specifically
to cases of adultery. In this form of punishment, the convicted person
is put to death by throwing stones, usually by a crowd. This practice
was seen in some cultures as allowing the larger community to take
part in the administration of justice. Stoning has been used since
ancient times to punish the convicted. Subsequently, this practice
has been criticised as ìcruelî and ìinhuman.î Some countries,
therefore, have abandoned this method replacing it with either life
imprisonment, hanging or decapitation.





Book author : .
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:


This paper examines the scriptural bases of stoning for adultery in
the two sister religions and its implementation in contemporary Muslim
societies. Based upon archival and documentary research, this study found
that stoning to death for adultery is prescribed in both the Bible and the
Qurí...n. Christians, however, have abandoned this law and it is no longer
practiced in any Christian-dominant country. With the expansion of Western
imperialism, the same trend seems to be taking place in Muslim societies.
There are a few Muslim countries that are trying to implement this law but they
face a good deal of criticism from the Western media and other secular
organizations, consequently, shying away from implementing this punishment
in public.
Keywords: stoning for adultery, Qurí...n, Bible, Shar ëah, Muslim societies

Stoning is a form of capital punishment which applies specifically
to cases of adultery. In this form of punishment, the convicted person
is put to death by throwing stones, usually by a crowd. This practice
was seen in some cultures as allowing the larger community to take
part in the administration of justice. Stoning has been used since
ancient times to punish the convicted. Subsequently, this practice
has been criticised as ìcruelî and ìinhuman.î Some countries,
therefore, have abandoned this method replacing it with either life
imprisonment, hanging or decapitation.

-

98 INTELLECTUAL DISCOURSE, VOL 18, NO 1, 2010
Stoning to death is one of the prescribed punishments in Islam.
It is included in ÕudÀd (the plural form of Õadd meaning restraint,
obstruction, hindrance or prohibition) crimes for which there are
fixed punishment in the Holy Qurí...n and Sunnah. The punishment
in ÕudÀd is not subject to any amendment, alteration or substitution.
Stoning as a capital punishment, however, is not unique to Islam.
Christianity, among other religions, also provided for this type of
capital punishment. However, it is no longer in practice. For Muslims,
this divine prescription remains intact, but the interpretations and
implementations seem to differ. This paper first discusses the divine
prescription for adultery in the Christian scripture followed by similar
discussion from the perspective of Islam. The final part looks at its
implementation in Muslim countries in the 21st century. The dearth
of writings on this subject provides ample justification for a study
of this kind.
Stoning for Adultery According to Christianity
The Old Testament (King James Version) prescribed death
punishment by stoning for several crimes (Jacobs, 1964) including
stealing (Joshua, 7:20-26), Sabbath breaking (Numbers, 15:32-36),
preaching or practicing a different religion, blasphemy (Lev, 24:10-
16), cursing God and the king (Kings, 21:1-16), being a medium or
a wizard (Levi, 20:27), being a stubborn or rebellious son (Deut,
21:18-21), and other major crimes. Stoning was one of the primary
methods of capital punishment in the Old Testament.
The basis for punishment of stoning specifically for adultery is
clearly provided in Leviticus (20:10-12) which reads: ìIf a man
commits adultery with another manís wife, even with the wife of his
neighbour, both the adulterer and adulteress must be put to deathÖ.î
Further, in Deuteronomy (22:22-24), it is stated that, ìIf a man
happens to meet in a town a virgin pledged to be married and he
sleeps with her, you should take both of them to the gate of that
town and stone them to death.î
Most Christians do not regard the penalty of stoning as a religious
teaching. Some Christians argue that the law of stoning has been
abolished by acts of Jesus (John, 8:1-11). However, according to
Metzger (1994), a prominent Biblical scholar, this entire section,

STONING FOR ADULTERY IN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY/AZMAN NOOR 99
John 7:53-8:11, traditionally known as the pericope adulterae, is
not contained in the earliest and best manuscript and was almost
certainly not an original part of the Gospel of John. Among modern
commentators and textual critics, it is a foregone conclusion that
the section is not original but represents a later addition to the text

of the Gospel. Metzger summarises: ìThe evidence for the non-
Johannine origin of the periscope of the adulteress is overwhelmingî

(p.187).
This fabrication is also confirmed by Westcott and Hort (1998).
According to them, the section on the woman taken in adultery (John,
7:53-8:11) requires an exceptional treatment. No interpolation is
more clearly Western, though it is not Western of the earliest type. It
was expunged by the Armenians, and not the slightest allusion to it
has yet been discovered in the whole Greek theology before the
12th century. It is absent from the better manuscripts of all th

 

 


Another significant reason why Christians do not implement this
particular law is the issue of how to deal with the teachings and the
law of the Old Testament. According to Paul, not following the law
of the Old Testament is compensated by having faith in Jesus. This
can be understood by looking at Paulís statement based on what he
claimed to be revelation from Jesus (Dunn, 1993, pp.51-131), where
the Christians are no longer to keep the law of the Old Testament.
Paulís statement reads:
A man is not justified by observing the law, but by faith in
Jesus Christ. So we too, have put our faith in Christ Jesus in
order that we might be justified by faith in Christ and not by
observing the law, because by observing the law no-one will
be justified (Galatians, 2:15-16).
Stoning for Adultery in Islam
There is no disagreement among the jurists of the four leading
schools that the punishment of flogging for zin... (adultery) prescribed

-

100 INTELLECTUAL DISCOURSE, VOL 18, NO 1, 2010
in the Qurí...n applies to unmarried men and women who are referred
to as ghayr muÕŒan. According to them, the punishment of stoning
to death is only applicable for a married zin... offender (muÕŒan). The
distinction between muÕŒan and ghayr muÕŒan expressed in English
as adulterer and fornicator is based on the fact that a married person
has no reason to commit zin... since he or she can enjoy lawful sexual
relations with his or her spouse. This opportunity is not available to
the unmarried; consequently the punishment of the unmarried should
be lighter than that of the married (El-Awa, 1982, p.19). Another
justification for stoning the muÕŒan is the fact that zin... is considered
as one of the major sins and a very serious crime causing corruption
of lineage which is almost similar to the destruction of mankind.
That is why adultery committed by a muÕŒan is regarded as
tantamount to committing murder. As the punishment for murder is
that the life of the murderer should be taken to save others, a married
adulterer should undergo the same punishment.
The legitimacy of stoning to death is based on the sayings of the
Prophet (SAW) as well as his practices. Among the reported sayings
are as follow:
1. On the authority of AbÀ Hurayrah, a Bedouin man came to
the Prophet complaining to him about his son who committed
zin... with his employerís wife. He said: ìO Prophet of Allah,
in the name of Allah, I want you to pass the judgment from
Allahís book. My son committed adultery with his
employerís wife, and I was told that the penalty for my son
is al-rajm. Hence, I want to preempt his offence with 100
sheep and a slave. After asking some of your knowledgeable
companions they told me that the penalty for my son is 100

flogging and one year deportation and for the woman is al-
rajm. The Prophet told him that he judged based on the Book

of Allah. The sheep and slave girl is returned to you. And
your son deserves 100 lashes and one year deportation. And
about the woman, the Prophet ordered a companion called
Unays to investigate the matter, if she confesses, then stone
her to deathî (Muslim, 10:1034).
2. On the authority of ëUb...dah ibn al-ÿ...mit, the Prophet said:
ìTake from me, take from me as Allah has revealed to me

STONING FOR ADULTERY IN ISLAM AND CHRISTIANITY/AZMAN NOOR 101
the penalty for the adulteresses; for the unmarried is 100
lashes and for the married is al-rajmî (Muslim, 10:1025).
3. On the authority of Ibn MasëÀd, the Prophet said: ìa Muslim
should not be killed (his blood is protected) except for three
offences: adultery committed by a married person, a murder
and apostasy (Al-Bukh...r , 81:20171).
4. The JumhÀr (majority of jurists) also based their position on
a report that a Qurí...nic verse was revealed prescribing this
punishment ìThe old married man and woman who commit
adultery, stone them to death as a deterrence from Allah,
and Allah is Most Powerful, Most Wiseî(Al-Ÿabar , 1992).
The text of this verse is believed to be abrogated but its
verdict continued to be applied (Al-Bukh...r , 10:1038). There
was also a reported occasion of ëUmar where he stated while
delivering a sermon, ìIndeed Allah sent Muhammad (SAW)
with the truth and revealed a book to him. Among the
revealed verses was the verse prescribing al-rajm. We used
to read and understand them very well, and the Prophet
implemented the punishment as we are doing the same. I
am afraid that one day someone will say: ëWe donít find the
verse in the Qurí...n and abandon the punishment.í Actually
such punishment is valid for anybody who commits such a
crime, male or female who are married when convicted.î
(Al-Bukh...r , 10:1038).
There are other Õad th confirming the execution of rajm. It is reported
that four cases of stoning to death took place during the time of the
Prophet (SAW). Firstly, the case of two Jews convicted of adultery.
It is unclear whether the Prophet (SAW) ordered the sentencing based
on the Old Testament or Islamic law (AbÀ Zahrah, 1958). However,
in the other three cases (Õad th al-As f, M...ëiz, and a woman of
Gh...midiyyah), it is clear that there was no reason to apply the Jewish
law since all were Muslims.
The penalty of stoning to death is clearly prescribed in Muslimís
al-SaÕ Õ, and also recorded by the authors of the Sunan such as
AbÀ D...wÀd (11:3836), Ibn M...jah (7:2544), al-Nas...í (45:1931),

 

 

 Book author :



سنة النشر : 2010م / 1431هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 89.1 كيلوبايت .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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