📘 قراءة كتاب The Socio intellectual Foundations of Malek Bennabi’s Approach to Civilization أونلاين
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The Socio-Intellectual Foundations of Malek Bennabi’s Approach
to Civilization was published in complete form in 2011. Since Samuel
Huntington’s essay “The Clash of Civilizations?” first appeared concern
over civilization and conflict has been reintroduced into the debate on
the world order. Malek Bennabi (1905–1973), prominent Algerian
thinker and great Muslim intellectual, intently focused on unravelling the
causes of Muslim decline and the success of Western civilization and cul-
ture. The key problem he theorized lay not in the Qur’an or Islamic faith
but in Muslims themselves. The author investigates Bennabi’s approach
to civilization and the fundamental principles drawn, using metatheoriz-
ing methodology. In doing so he sheds further light on perhaps one of
the more intriguing elements of Bennabi’s theory, that civilization is gov-
erned by internal-external and social-intellectual factors and that an
equation can be generated for civilization itself. This equation of Man+
Soil+Time = Civilization and of which religion, according to Bennabi,
formsthe all-important catalyst, is explained and itssignificance in terms
of the reversal of Muslim decline evaluated. What is clearly apparent is
that for Bennabi, Man is the central force in any civilizing process and
without him the othertwo elements are of no value.
With regard to outcomes, Bennabi’s unerring conviction that unless
Muslims changed their spiritual condition they could not effect any far-
reaching, meaningful change in society is echoed in the Qur’anic verse:
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“Verily, never will Allah change the condition of a people until they
change what is in themselves” (13:11).
This book focuses on the work of Malek Bennabi (1905–1973), a
prominent Algerian thinker and great Muslim intellectual, bringing
new insight to his methodology and philosophy. Bennabi, whose
research unraveled the causes of Muslim decline and the success of
Western civilization and culture, concluded that problems lay not in
the Qur’an or Islamic faith but in Muslims. A true picture of the effects
of colonization and the factors governing civilization could solve the
problems of the Muslim world and launch a new Muslim renaissance.
The work investigates Bennabi’s approach to civilization and the prin-
ciples drawn using metatheorizing methodology (Mu), going beyond
available literature to present Bennabi’s interdisciplinary approach to
civilization and analyze its underlying structure. It highlights Bennabi’s
theory that internal-external and social-intellectual factors govern
civilization and an equation can be generated for civilization itself.
According to Bennabi, religion is the most important catalyst for this
equation of Man+Soil+Time = Civilization, and is significant for the
reversal of Muslim decline. For Bennabi, Man is the central force in
any civilizing process, and without him the other two elements lack
Bennabi’s belief that Muslims must first change their spiritual condition
before successfully changing society or civilization is echoed in the
Qur’anic verse 13:11: “Verily, never will Allah change the condition of
a people until they change what is in themselves.”
The study of civilizations and global change continues to feature promi-
nently in academic circles. Many researchers and scholars called for
the review of works of leading civilizationists. Bennabi, the Muslim
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world’s first social philosopher and social scientist since Ibn Khald‰n,
searched for universal laws and fundamental principles that govern
human societies and civilizations and determine their destiny in history.
His concern about the decline of Muslim civilization led him to analyze
its causes and provide solutions. Rather than address the dilemma with
economics, politics, and ideology, he emphasized the role of ideas as a
catalyst for the growth of civilization.
With a deep understanding of Islam and the social sciences, Bennabi
approached the performance of human societies and the dynamics of
culture and civilization from a universal perspective. He aimed to re-
solve societal problems within the framework of civilization, the intel-
ligible unit for study of socio-historical phenomena. He said, “The
problem of every people, in its essence, is that of its civilization.”
Bennabi’s philosophy is an integrated system of interpretation based
on a deep understanding of Islam. His approach to the study of civi-
lization and its course in history helps diagnose the Muslim civiliza-
tional crisis and explain its origins and solutions. His scientific training
combined with a historical, sociological, and philosophical outlook en-
abled him to analyze European civilization and generate original
thought and analysis of the Ummah’s strengths and weaknesses.
This study aims to determine the different factors that influenced
Bennabi’s approach to civilization. It considers his tools, methods, con-
cepts, and theories and analyzes his process and approach. The end
goal is to understand contemporary civilization and its consequences
on social life and provide a civilizational framework for decision-
Bennabi’s metatheoretical approach reflects intellectual efforts in the
Muslim world since the early 19th century that sought to resolve back-
wardness and reactivate Muslim civilization, via a comprehensive sys-
tem of analysis. The resulting interdisciplinary approach draws from
philosophy of history, the social sciences, and the heritage of Ibn
Khald‰n. This perspective is essential for diagnosing the different
partial dilemmas in the Muslim world and other civilizations.
To allow a better appreciation of Bennabi’s concept of civilization, we
use George Ritzer’s metatheorizing approach, the systematic study of
the underlying structure of sociological theory. It adapts more system-
atically to the Islamic intellectual and cultural framework, the
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fundamental sphere of development of Bennabi’s ideas. The author uses
the first type of metatheorizing, (Mu). The goal of the present study is
to better understand Bennabi’s theory of civilization with the four
dimensions of the subtype of metatheorizing (Mu).
Mu involves the study of theory to produce a deeper understanding of
extant theory. Its internal-social dimension looks within the field of
study and focuses on social rather than cognitive factors. The exter-
nal-social dimension shifts to a macro level to view the larger society
and its impact on theorizing, while emphasizing the relationships
between the theorization process and various institutions. With
Bennabi this dimension focuses on the relationship between external-
social factors and the formulation and development of his approach.
The internal-intellectual dimension focuses on intellectual or cognitive
issues that are traditionally internal to the study of civilization. It
includes attempts to identify the major cognitive paradigms, schools of
thought, paradigm changes, and the development of metatheoretical
tools. The external-intellectual dimension turns to other academic dis-
ciplines for ideas, tools, concepts, and theories for the study of civiliza-
tion. In Bennabi’s case, this dimension involves the impact of the
Qur’an, religious thought in the Muslim world, philosophy, psychol-
ogy, the natural sciences, and other intellectual activities outside the
field of civilization studies and its two dominant paradigms.
Mu provides systematic methods to understand, evaluate, criticize, and
improve existing theories. Metatheorists systematically study detailed,
often comparative, arrays of sociological theories. Mu enables a more
adequate evaluation and critical analysis of extant theories.
This study’s comparative method uses the Mu model to understand
Bennabi’s approach to civilization and compare his approach with Ibn
Khald‰n and others. This research uses a mixed-methods approach by
combining historical analysis, comparative analysis, and content analy-
sis. Through comparison the author intends to understand and discover
the differences and similarities between Bennabi’s approach and others’.
The content analysis method addresses Bennabi’s concepts, assump-
tions, and terms to understand his expressions, uncover the underlying
structure of his approach, and view his various conceptions as a system
for an in-depth understanding based on Mu. The micro-macro contin-
uum, an epistemological device for addressing the complex social
world, is also used.
Book The Sociointellectual Foundations of Malek Bennabi’s Approach to Civilization author :
Since the publication of Samuel Huntington s The Clash of Civilizations concern about civilization has been reintroduced into the debate on the world order. Malek Bennabi _1905 1973_, prominent Algerian thinker and great Muslim intellectual, intently focused on unraveling the causes of Muslim decline and the success of Western civilization and culture….
سنة النشر : 2013م / 1434هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 1.5 ميجا بايت .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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