📘 قراءة رواية Stranger in a Strange Land أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوي علي العديد من القصص والروايات باللغة الإنجليزية
(Stories and novels) القصص والروايات
الرواية هي سرد نثري طويل يصف شخصيات خيالية أو واقعية وأحداثاً على شكل قصة متسلسلة، كما أنها أكبر الأجناس القصصية من حيث الحجم وتعدد الشخصيات وتنوع الأحداث، وقد ظهرت في أوروبا بوصفها جنساً أدبياً مؤثراً في القرن الثامن عشر، والرواية حكاية تعتمد السرد بما فيه من وصف وحوار وصراع بين الشخصيات وما ينطوي عليه ذلك من تأزم وجدل وتغذيه الأحداث
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood.
A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel usually dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and often concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."
The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components as in a novel, but typically to a lesser degree. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel or novella (a shorter novel), authors generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.
Stranger in a Strange Land
HIS MACULATE ORIGIN
ONCE UPON A TIME when the world was young there was a Martian named Smith.
Valentine Michael Smith was as real as taxes but he was a race of one.
“Stranger In A Strange Land” by Robert Heinlein
The first human expedition from Terra to Mars was selected on the theory that the greatest
danger to man in space was man himself. At that time, only eight Terran years after the founding of
the first human colony on Luna, any interplanetary trip made by humans necessarily had to be
made in weary free-fail orbits, doubly tangent semi-ellipses--from Terra to Mars, two hundred
fifty-eight days, the same for the return journey, plus four hundred fifty-five days waiting at Mars
while the two planets crawled slowly back into relative positions which would permit shaping the
doubly-tangent orbit-a total of almost three Earth years.
Besides its wearing length, the trip was very chancy. Only by refueling at a space station,
then tacking back almost into Earth's atmosphere, could thi5 primitive flying coffin, the Envoy,
make the trip at all. Once at Mars she might be able to return-if she did not crash in landing, if
water could be found on Man to fill her reaction-mass tanks, if some sort of food could be found on
Mars, if a thousand other things did not go wrong.
But the physical danger was judged to be less important than the psychological stresses.
Eight humans, crowded together like monkeys for almost three Terran years, had better get along
much better than humans usually did. An all-male crew had been vetoed as unhealthy and sociaily
unstable from lessons learned earlier. A ship's company of four married couples had been decided
on as optimum, if the necessary specialties could be found in such a combination.
The University of Edinburgh, prime contractor, sub-contracted crew selection to the
Institute for Social Studies. After discarding the chaff of volunteers useless through age, health,
mentality, training, or temperament, the Institute still had over nine thousand candidates to work
from, each sound in mind and body and having at least one of the necessary special skills. It was
expected that the Institute would report several acceptable four-couple crews.
No such crew was found. The major skills needed were astrogator, medical doctor, cook,
machinist, ship's commander, semantician, chemical engineer, electronics engineer, physicist,
geologist, biochemist, biologist, atomics engineer, photographer, hydroponicist, rocket engineer.
Each crew member would have to possess more than one skill, or be able to acquire extra skills in
time. There were hundreds of possible combinations of eight people possessing these skills; there
turned up three combinations of four married couples possessing them, plus health and
intelligence.-but in all three cases the group-dynamicists who evaluated the temperament factors for
compatibility threw up their hands in horror.
سنة النشر : 1961م / 1381هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.0MB .
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