📘 قراءة رواية Germinal أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوي علي العديد من القصص والروايات باللغة الإنجليزية
(Stories and novels) القصص والروايات
الرواية هي سرد نثري طويل يصف شخصيات خيالية أو واقعية وأحداثاً على شكل قصة متسلسلة، كما أنها أكبر الأجناس القصصية من حيث الحجم وتعدد الشخصيات وتنوع الأحداث، وقد ظهرت في أوروبا بوصفها جنساً أدبياً مؤثراً في القرن الثامن عشر، والرواية حكاية تعتمد السرد بما فيه من وصف وحوار وصراع بين الشخصيات وما ينطوي عليه ذلك من تأزم وجدل وتغذيه الأحداث
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood.
A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel usually dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and often concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."
The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components as in a novel, but typically to a lesser degree. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel or novella (a shorter novel), authors generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.
By Havelock Ellis
'GERMINAL' was published in 1885, after occupying Zola during the
previous year. In accordance with his usual custom--but to a greater extent
than with any other of his books except La Débâcle--he accumulated
material beforehand. For six months he travelled about the coal-mining
district in northern France and Belgium, especially the Borinage around
Mons, note-book in hand. 'He was inquisitive, was that gentleman', miner
told Sherard who visited the neighbourhood at a later period and found that
the miners in every village knew Germinal. That was a tribute of
admiration the book deserved, but it was never one of Zola's most popular
novels; it was neither amusing enough nor outrageous enough to attract the
Yet Germinal occupies a place among Zola's works which is constantly
becoming more assured, so that to some critics it even begins to seem the
only book of his that in the end may survive. In his own time, as we know,
the accredited critics of the day could find no condemnation severe enough
for Zola. Brunetière attacked him perpetually with a fury that seemed
inexhaustible; Schérer could not even bear to hear his name mentioned;
Anatole France, though he lived to relent, thought it would have been better
if he had never been born. Even at that time, however, there were critics
who inclined to view Germinal more favourably. Thus Faguet, who was the
recognized academic critic of the end of the last century, while he held that
posterity would be unable to understand how Zola could ever have been
popular, yet recognized him as in Germinal the heroic representative of
democracy, incomparable in his power of describing crowds, and he
realized how marvellous is the conclusion of this book.
To-day, when critics view Zola In the main with indifference rather than
with horror, although he still retains his popular favour, the distinction of
Germinal is yet more clearly recognized. Seillière, while regarding the
capitalistic conditions presented as now of an ancient and almost extinct
type, yet sees Germinal standing out as 'the poem of social mysticism',
while André Gide, a completely modern critic who has left a deep mark on
the present generation, observes somewhere that it may nowadays cause
surprise that he should refer with admiraton to Germinal, but it is a
masterly book that fills him with astonishment; he can hardly believe that it
was written in French and still less that it should have been written in any
other language; it seems that it should have been created in some
سنة النشر : 2004م / 1425هـ .
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