📘 قراءة رواية Persian Letters أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوي علي العديد من القصص والروايات باللغة الإنجليزية
(Stories and novels) القصص والروايات
الرواية هي سرد نثري طويل يصف شخصيات خيالية أو واقعية وأحداثاً على شكل قصة متسلسلة، كما أنها أكبر الأجناس القصصية من حيث الحجم وتعدد الشخصيات وتنوع الأحداث، وقد ظهرت في أوروبا بوصفها جنساً أدبياً مؤثراً في القرن الثامن عشر، والرواية حكاية تعتمد السرد بما فيه من وصف وحوار وصراع بين الشخصيات وما ينطوي عليه ذلك من تأزم وجدل وتغذيه الأحداث
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood.
A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel usually dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and often concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."
The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components as in a novel, but typically to a lesser degree. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel or novella (a shorter novel), authors generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.
The Persian Letters (Lettres persanes) is perhaps the first great popular work of the European Enlightenment. Conceived around 1717,
it was published anonymously in 1721 and enjoyed immediate
notoriety. The playwright Marivaux was critical of its ‘false
brilliance’ about serious subjects, while the historian and journalist
Denis-François Camusat applauded its brilliance but called the contents ‘dangerous’. A cleric, stung by its critical attitude to religion,
told Montesquieu that his book ‘would sell like hot cakes’. The prediction was correct, and Montesquieu later noted that booksellers,
eager to cash in, implored members of the public to ‘write them some
Persian Letters’. The original two slim volumes clearly caught the
mood of the moment.
Montesquieu now stands as one of the great political thinkers of
the modern world. His views on the nature of states and their constitutions had a tangible impact on the world around him. In Russia,
Catherine the Great drew on his writing in her legislative reforms of
the 1760s, and in America the Founding Fathers looked to his great
Spirit of the Laws (De l’esprit des lois, 1748) in framing their constitution for the new republic. When in the early twenty-first century
pundits everywhere worry about the compatibility of Islam and the
West, we see Montesquieu’s name invoked in discussions about the
banning of the headscarf in France, in editorials about the war in
Iraq, and in polemics about the separation of powers in the United
Yet when encountered first in the 1720s, Montesquieu does not
look like an obvious figure to anticipate the tireless scepticism of
future philosophes. For one thing, they were from less privileged
backgrounds, Voltaire the son of a bourgeois lawyer, Diderot the son
of a provincial cutler. As an aristocratic landowner and magistrate,
Montesquieu might rather have been expected to follow received
wisdom about church and state, god and man.
سنة النشر : 1973م / 1393هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.5MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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