📘 قراءة كتاب Environmental Chemistry أونلاين
Biology is a natural science that is concerned with the study of life, its various forms and its function, how these organisms interact with each other and with the surrounding environment. The word biology in Greek is made up of two words: bio (βίος) meaning life. And loggia (-λογία) means science or study. Biology: the similarity of vegetation and animal cover on the edges of the African and American states, and the existence of the same fossil.
Branches of biology
Biology is an ancient science thousands of years old and modern biology began in the nineteenth century. This science has multiple branches. Among them are:
Cytology or cell science
Ecology or environmental science
نبذه عن الكتاب:
York Minster is over 500 years old and requires very expensive maintenance to ensure
its existence for future generations. It is composed of a wide variety of materials, which
have been subjected to erosion. The external fabric of stone has been eroded both by
natural weathering and by chemicals put into the atmosphere by man’s actions (Figure
1.1). Winning the battle between the Minster and its environment lies not only in
reducing atmospheric pollution but also in the replacement of damaged stone. This
replacement is not a simple matter because, although there is fresh stone in abundance,
the continual replacement of stone can undermine the integrity of a building by causing
the structure to become unstable. At York Minster the stonemasons try, as far as possible,
to incorporate all old stone into any repair work because there is the danger that if too
much fabric is replaced there could be a serious loss of authenticity (Brimblecombe and
What chemicals then have caused the erosion of the stone?
The pollutants sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) are
believed to be the main culprits. Although York Minster has suffered from anthropogenic
effects, there is no method by which these effects can be readily separated from other
contributions such as poor construction techniques, wrongly chosen materials, natural
weathering and biological attack. The rate of destruction can be significantly increased
during heavy rainfall if vast quantities of water containing pollutants percolate through
the stone carrying away any reaction products in the run off (Baer and Snethlage 1997).
The reaction products are mainly salts which are formed by the reaction of negatively
charged anions (e.g. SO4
2) from pollutant gases or acids, with positively charged cations
in the stone (e.g. Ca2).
Who is the founder of biology?
The importance of biology
Areas of work in the field of biology
Theories of biology
Research on biology for the first grade of secondary school
سنة النشر : 2003م / 1424هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.83 .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
اذا اعجبك الكتاب فضلاً اضغط على أعجبني و يمكنك تحميله من هنا:
شكراً لمساهمتكم معنا في الإرتقاء بمستوى المكتبة ، يمكنكم االتبليغ عن اخطاء او سوء اختيار للكتب وتصنيفها ومحتواها ، أو كتاب يُمنع نشره ، او محمي بحقوق طبع ونشر ، فضلاً قم بالتبليغ عن الكتاب المُخالف: