❞ كتاب {Intro to Linguistics { Morphology ❝  ⏤ Jirka Hana

❞ كتاب {Intro to Linguistics { Morphology ❝ ⏤ Jirka Hana

Intro to Linguistics { Morphology
Jirka Hana { October 31, 2011


Overview of topics
1. Basic terminology
2. Classi cation of morphemes
3. Structure of words
4. Morphological processes
5. Word formation
6. Language Typology
7. Processing morphology
1 Basic terminology
* Morphology { study of internal structure of words
* Morpheme { the smallest linguistic unit which has a meaning or grammatical func-
tion. Words are composed of morphemes (one or more). There are some complications
with this simple de nition.
The order of morphemes matters:
talked 6= *edtalk, rewrite 6= *writere
* Morph. The term morpheme is used both to refer to an abstract entity and its concrete
realization(s) in speech or writing. When it is needed to maintain the signi ed and
signi er distinction, the term morph is used to refer to the concrete entity, while the
term morpheme is reserved for the abstract entity only.
* Allomorphs { morphemes having the same function but di erent form. Unlike the
synonyms they usually cannot be replaced one by the other.
(1) a. inde nite article: an orange { a building Jirka Hana - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ {Intro to Linguistics { Morphology ❝ ❞ Intro to Linguistics { Basic Concepts of Linguistics ❝ ❱
من الصرف Morphology كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
{Intro to Linguistics { Morphology

2011م - 1442هـ
Intro to Linguistics { Morphology
Jirka Hana { October 31, 2011


Overview of topics
1. Basic terminology
2. Classi cation of morphemes
3. Structure of words
4. Morphological processes
5. Word formation
6. Language Typology
7. Processing morphology
1 Basic terminology
* Morphology { study of internal structure of words
* Morpheme { the smallest linguistic unit which has a meaning or grammatical func-
tion. Words are composed of morphemes (one or more). There are some complications
with this simple de nition.
The order of morphemes matters:
talked 6= *edtalk, rewrite 6= *writere
* Morph. The term morpheme is used both to refer to an abstract entity and its concrete
realization(s) in speech or writing. When it is needed to maintain the signi ed and
signi er distinction, the term morph is used to refer to the concrete entity, while the
term morpheme is reserved for the abstract entity only.
* Allomorphs { morphemes having the same function but di erent form. Unlike the
synonyms they usually cannot be replaced one by the other.
(1) a. inde nite article: an orange { a building
.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

هذا القسم يحتوي علي كل ما يخص بعلم الصرف

يتوفر علم الصرف على تبيان تأليف الكلمة المفردة بتبيان وزنها وعدد حروفها و حركاتها و ترتيبها، و ما يعرض لذلك من تغيير وحذف، وما في حروفها و حركاتها و ترتيبهما، وما في حروف الكلمة من اصالة و زيادة.

يقتصر مجال دراسات الصرف على الأسماء المتمكنة (المعربة) و الافعال المتصرفة (غير جامدة).

أما الحروف و مبنيات الأسماء و جوامد الافعال، فلا تدخل في مجال دراسته و أبحاثه.

يُعرَفُ الصرف أيضا بعلم التشكل (باللاتينية: Morphologia). والصرف لُغَةً هو التغير والتحويل ومنه تصريف الرياح أي تغيير وجهتها من مكان لآخر.

In linguistics, morphology (/mɔːrˈfɒlədʒi/) is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language. It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes. Morphology also looks at parts of speech, intonation and stress, and the ways context can change a word's pronunciation and meaning. Morphology differs from morphological typology, which is the classification of languages based on their use of words, and lexicology, which is the study of words and how they make up a language's vocabulary.]

While words, along with clitics, are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, in most languages, if not all, many words can be related to other words by rules that collectively describe the grammar for that language. For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog and dogs are closely related, differentiated only by the plurality morpheme "-s", only found bound to noun phrases. Speakers of English, a fusional language, recognize these relations from their innate knowledge of English's rules of word formation. They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats; and, in similar fashion, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher. By contrast, Classical Chinese has very little morphology, using almost exclusively unbound morphemes ("free" morphemes) and depending on word order to convey meaning. (Most words in modern Standard Chinese ["Mandarin"], however, are compounds and most roots are bound.) These are understood as grammars that represent the morphology of the language. The rules understood by a speaker reflect specific patterns or regularities in the way words are formed from smaller units in the language they are using, and how those smaller units interact in speech. In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.

Phonological and orthographic modifications between a base word and its origin may be partial to literacy skills. Studies have indicated that the presence of modification in phonology and orthography makes morphologically complex words harder to understand and that the absence of modification between a base word and its origin makes morphologically complex words easier to understand. Morphologically complex words are easier to comprehend when they include a base word.[6]

Polysynthetic languages, such as Chukchi, have words composed of many morphemes. The Chukchi word "təmeyŋəlevtpəγtərkən", for example, meaning "I have a fierce headache", is composed of eight morphemes t-ə-meyŋ-ə-levt-pəγt-ə-rkən that may be glossed. The morphology of such languages allows for each consonant and vowel to be understood as morphemes, while the grammar of the language indicates the usage and understanding of each morpheme.

The discipline that deals specifically with the sound changes occurring within morphemes is morphophonology.


Contents
1    History
2    Fundamental concepts
2.1    Lexemes and word forms
2.1.1    Prosodic word vs. morphological word
2.2    Inflection vs. word formation
2.3    Types of word formation
2.4    Paradigms and morphosyntax
2.5    Allomorphy
2.6    Lexical morphology
3    Models
3.1    Morpheme-based morphology
3.2    Lexeme-based morphology
3.3    Word-based morphology
4    Morphological typology
5    Examples
6    Application

Intro to Linguistics { Morphology
Jirka Hana { October 31, 2011


Overview of topics
1. Basic terminology
2. Classi cation of morphemes
3. Structure of words
4. Morphological processes
5. Word formation
6. Language Typology
7. Processing morphology
1 Basic terminology
* Morphology { study of internal structure of words
* Morpheme { the smallest linguistic unit which has a meaning or grammatical func-
tion. Words are composed of morphemes (one or more). There are some complications
with this simple de nition.
The order of morphemes matters:
talked 6= *edtalk, rewrite 6= *writere
* Morph. The term morpheme is used both to refer to an abstract entity and its concrete
realization(s) in speech or writing. When it is needed to maintain the signi ed and
signi er distinction, the term morph is used to refer to the concrete entity, while the
term morpheme is reserved for the abstract entity only.
* Allomorphs { morphemes having the same function but di erent form. Unlike the
synonyms they usually cannot be replaced one by the other.
(1) a. inde nite article: an orange { a building

{Intro to Linguistics { Morphology
types of morphology

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سنة النشر : 2011م / 1432هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 0.1MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
عداد القراءة: عدد قراءة {Intro to Linguistics { Morphology

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