❞ كتاب Phonetics and Phonology 4 ❝  ⏤ Delahunty and Garvey

❞ كتاب Phonetics and Phonology 4 ❝ ⏤ Delahunty and Garvey

4 Phonetics and Phonology
In this chapter we sketch the pronunciation system of English. We begin
with phonetics, a system for describing and recording the sounds of language objectively. Phonetics provides a valuable way of opening our ears to
facets of language that we tend to understand by reference to their written
rather than their actual spoken forms. Phonology concerns itself with the
ways in which languages make use of sounds to distinguish words from each
other.
Teachers should be knowledgeable about the phonetics and phonology
of English because (1) the sound system is primary and the basis for the
spelling system; (2) they may have to teach English pronunciation to students who are not native speakers of English; (3) they may have to teach
poetry, which requires that they teach about rhyme, alliteration, assonance,
and other poetic devices that manipulate sound; (4) it is important to understand accents and language variation and to react appropriately to them
and to teach appropriate language attitudes about them to students (see our
chapters on Language and Society and Usage in Book II); (5) we are so literate that we tend to “hear” the sounds of our language through its spelling
system, and phonetics/phonology provides a corrective to that; and (6) phonetics and phonology provide systematic and well-founded understandings
of the sound patterns of English.
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Phonetics and Phonology 4

2015م - 1442هـ
4 Phonetics and Phonology
In this chapter we sketch the pronunciation system of English. We begin
with phonetics, a system for describing and recording the sounds of language objectively. Phonetics provides a valuable way of opening our ears to
facets of language that we tend to understand by reference to their written
rather than their actual spoken forms. Phonology concerns itself with the
ways in which languages make use of sounds to distinguish words from each
other.
Teachers should be knowledgeable about the phonetics and phonology
of English because (1) the sound system is primary and the basis for the
spelling system; (2) they may have to teach English pronunciation to students who are not native speakers of English; (3) they may have to teach
poetry, which requires that they teach about rhyme, alliteration, assonance,
and other poetic devices that manipulate sound; (4) it is important to understand accents and language variation and to react appropriately to them
and to teach appropriate language attitudes about them to students (see our
chapters on Language and Society and Usage in Book II); (5) we are so literate that we tend to “hear” the sounds of our language through its spelling
system, and phonetics/phonology provides a corrective to that; and (6) phonetics and phonology provide systematic and well-founded understandings
of the sound patterns of English.

.
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Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status.

Phonetics as a research discipline has three main branches:[2]

Articulatory phonetics: the articulation of speech[3]
Acoustic phonetics: the acoustics of speech
Auditory phonetics: the perception of speech
Phonetic insight is used in several applied linguistic fields such as:

Forensic phonetics: the use of phonetics for legal purposes
Speech recognition: the analysis and transcription of recorded speech by a computer system
Speech synthesis: the production of human speech by a computer system
Phonology, on the other hand, is concerned with the abstract, grammatical characterization of systems of sounds or signs and how they pattern in and across languages. Phonology has been argued to relate to phonetics via the set of distinctive features, which map the abstract representations of speech units to articulatory gestures, acoustic signals or perceptual representations

contents
1        History
2      Consonants
2.1      Place of articulation
2.1.1    Labial consonants
2.1.2    Coronal consonants
2.1.3    Dorsal consonants
2.1.4    Radical consonants
2.1.5    Glottal consonants
2.2       Manner of articulation
3               Vowels
3.1         Vowel features
3.1.1    Vowel height
3.1.2        Vowel backness
3.1.3    Lip position
3.1.4    Minor features
4    Acoustic and auditory phonetics
5         Anatomy
5.1          The larynx
5.2        Pulmonary and subglottal system
6    Voicing and phonation types
7       Articulatory models
8          Sign languages
9       Transcription

Phonetics and Phonology 
In this chapter we sketch the pronunciation system of English. We begin
with phonetics, a system for describing and recording the sounds of language objectively. Phonetics provides a valuable way of opening our ears to
facets of language that we tend to understand by reference to their written
rather than their actual spoken forms. Phonology concerns itself with the
ways in which languages make use of sounds to distinguish words from each
other.
Teachers should be knowledgeable about the phonetics and phonology
of English because (1) the sound system is primary and the basis for the
spelling system; (2) they may have to teach English pronunciation to students who are not native speakers of English; (3) they may have to teach
poetry, which requires that they teach about rhyme, alliteration, assonance,
and other poetic devices that manipulate sound; (4) it is important to understand accents and language variation and to react appropriately to them
and to teach appropriate language attitudes about them to students (see our
chapters on Language and Society and Usage in Book II); (5) we are so literate that we tend to “hear” the sounds of our language through its spelling
system, and phonetics/phonology provides a corrective to that; and (6) phonetics and phonology provide systematic and well-founded understandings
of the sound patterns of English.

 types of phonetics

 examples 

 sounds

 english 

 pronunciation 

 books

 Definition of Phonetics

 learn English



سنة النشر : 2015م / 1436هـ .
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