❞ كتاب Introduction to Linguistics ❝  ⏤ Marcus Kracht

❞ كتاب Introduction to Linguistics ❝ ⏤ Marcus Kracht

Introduction to Linguistics
Marcus Kracht
Department of Linguistics, UCLA
3125 Campbell Hall
450 Hilgard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095–1543


Contents
Lecture 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lecture 2: Phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lecture 3: Phonology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Lecture 4: Phonology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Lecture 5: Phonology III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Lecture 6: Phonology IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Lecture 7: Morphology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Lecture 8: Syntax I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Lecture 9: Syntax II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Lecture 10: Syntax III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Lecture 11: Syntax IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Lecture 12: Syntax V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Lecture 13: Morphology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lecture 14: Semantics I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Lecture 15: Semantics II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Lecture 16: Semantics III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Lecture 17: Semantics IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Lecture 18: Semantics V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Lecture 19: Language Families and History of Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Lecture 1: Introduction
Languages are sets of signs. Signs combine an exponent (a sequence
of letters or sounds) with a meaning. Grammars are ways to generate
signs from more basic signs. Signs combine a form and a meaning,
and they are identical with neither their exponent nor with their meaning.
Before we start. I have tried to be as explicit as I could in preparing these notes.
You will find that some of the technicalities are demanding at first sight. Do
not panic! You are not expected to master these technicalities right away. The
technical character is basically due to my desire to be as explicit and detailed as
possible. For some of you this might actually be helpful. If you are not among
them you may want to read some other book on the side (which I encourage you to
do anyway). However, linguistics is getting increasingly formal and mathematical,
and you are well advised to get used to this style of doing science. So, if you do
not understand right away what I am saying, you will simply have to go over it
again and again. And keep asking questions! New words and technical terms
that are used for the first time are typed in bold-face. If you are supposed to
know what they mean, a definition will be given right away. The definition is
valid throughout the entire course, but be aware of the fact that other people might
define things differently. This applies when you read other books, for example.
You should beware of possible discrepancies in terminology. If you are not given
a definition elsewhere, be cautious. If you are given a different definition it does
not mean that the other books get it wrong. The symbol
Marcus Kracht - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Introduction to Linguistics ❝ ❱
من اللغويات Linguistics كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Introduction to Linguistics

2015م - 1442هـ
Introduction to Linguistics
Marcus Kracht
Department of Linguistics, UCLA
3125 Campbell Hall
450 Hilgard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095–1543


Contents
Lecture 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lecture 2: Phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lecture 3: Phonology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Lecture 4: Phonology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Lecture 5: Phonology III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Lecture 6: Phonology IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Lecture 7: Morphology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Lecture 8: Syntax I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Lecture 9: Syntax II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Lecture 10: Syntax III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Lecture 11: Syntax IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Lecture 12: Syntax V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Lecture 13: Morphology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lecture 14: Semantics I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Lecture 15: Semantics II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Lecture 16: Semantics III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Lecture 17: Semantics IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Lecture 18: Semantics V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Lecture 19: Language Families and History of Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Lecture 1: Introduction
Languages are sets of signs. Signs combine an exponent (a sequence
of letters or sounds) with a meaning. Grammars are ways to generate
signs from more basic signs. Signs combine a form and a meaning,
and they are identical with neither their exponent nor with their meaning.
Before we start. I have tried to be as explicit as I could in preparing these notes.
You will find that some of the technicalities are demanding at first sight. Do
not panic! You are not expected to master these technicalities right away. The
technical character is basically due to my desire to be as explicit and detailed as
possible. For some of you this might actually be helpful. If you are not among
them you may want to read some other book on the side (which I encourage you to
do anyway). However, linguistics is getting increasingly formal and mathematical,
and you are well advised to get used to this style of doing science. So, if you do
not understand right away what I am saying, you will simply have to go over it
again and again. And keep asking questions! New words and technical terms
that are used for the first time are typed in bold-face. If you are supposed to
know what they mean, a definition will be given right away. The definition is
valid throughout the entire course, but be aware of the fact that other people might
define things differently. This applies when you read other books, for example.
You should beware of possible discrepancies in terminology. If you are not given
a definition elsewhere, be cautious. If you are given a different definition it does
not mean that the other books get it wrong. The symbol

.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

هذا يحتوي يحتوى علي معلومات خاصة بعلم اللغويات

هي علم يهتم بدراسة اللغات الإنسانية ودراسة خصائصها وتراكيبها ودرجات التشابه والتباين فيما بينها.و يدرس اللغة من كل جوانبها دراسة شاملة.

أما اللغوي فهو الشخص الذي يقوم بهذه الدراسة. ظهرت اللسانيات الحديثة في القرن 19م، لكنها كعلم قديمة قدم الإنسان. جاءت بفكرة رئيسة مع العالم فرديناند دو سوسور فمع علمنة الثورة الصناعية أراد علمنة اللغة أيضا في كتابه /محاضرات في اللسانيات العامة/ فاللغة عنده تحمل هويات من قيم الدين، والمحيط، والثقافة، والفكر الفلسفي.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[5]

Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning

Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language. These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences). Many modern theories that deal with the principles of grammar are based on Noam Chomsky's framework of generative linguistics.]

In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language. This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance in his theory of transformative or generative grammar. According to Chomsky, competence is an individual's innate capacity and potential for language (like in Saussure's langue), while performance is the specific way in which it is used by individuals, groups, and communities (i.e., parole, in Saussurean term

Introduction to Linguistics
Marcus Kracht
Department of Linguistics, UCLA
3125 Campbell Hall
450 Hilgard Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90095–1543


Contents
Lecture 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Lecture 2: Phonetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Lecture 3: Phonology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Lecture 4: Phonology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Lecture 5: Phonology III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Lecture 6: Phonology IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Lecture 7: Morphology I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Lecture 8: Syntax I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Lecture 9: Syntax II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Lecture 10: Syntax III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Lecture 11: Syntax IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Lecture 12: Syntax V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Lecture 13: Morphology II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Lecture 14: Semantics I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Lecture 15: Semantics II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Lecture 16: Semantics III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Lecture 17: Semantics IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Lecture 18: Semantics V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Lecture 19: Language Families and History of Languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

Lecture 1: Introduction
Languages are sets of signs. Signs combine an exponent (a sequence
of letters or sounds) with a meaning. Grammars are ways to generate
signs from more basic signs. Signs combine a form and a meaning,
and they are identical with neither their exponent nor with their meaning.
Before we start. I have tried to be as explicit as I could in preparing these notes.
You will find that some of the technicalities are demanding at first sight. Do
not panic! You are not expected to master these technicalities right away. The
technical character is basically due to my desire to be as explicit and detailed as
possible. For some of you this might actually be helpful. If you are not among
them you may want to read some other book on the side (which I encourage you to
do anyway). However, linguistics is getting increasingly formal and mathematical,
and you are well advised to get used to this style of doing science. So, if you do
not understand right away what I am saying, you will simply have to go over it
again and again. And keep asking questions! New words and technical terms
that are used for the first time are typed in bold-face. If you are supposed to
know what they mean, a definition will be given right away. The definition is
valid throughout the entire course, but be aware of the fact that other people might
define things differently. This applies when you read other books, for example.
You should beware of possible discrepancies in terminology. If you are not given
a definition elsewhere, be cautious. If you are given a different definition it does
not mean that the other books get it wrong. The symbol

in the margin signals
some material that is difficult, and optional. Such passages are put in for those
who want to get a perfect understanding of the material; but they are not requried
knowledge.
(End of note)
Language is a means to communicate, it is a semiotic system. By that we
simply mean

Linguistics
linguistics lessons

types of linguistics

what is linguistics pdf

purpose of linguistics

why study linguistics?

branches of linguistics

modern linguistics summary

characteristics of linguistics



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المؤلف:
Marcus Kracht -

كتب Marcus Kracht ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Introduction to Linguistics ❝ ❱. المزيد..

كتب Marcus Kracht
الكتابة عالصورالقرآن الكريمكتب التاريخكتب القانون والعلوم السياسيةحكم قصيرةFacebook Text Artتورتة عيد ميلادزخرفة توبيكاتشخصيات هامة مشهورةمعنى اسمكورسات اونلاينكتابة على تورتة الزفافكتب الأدبكتب للأطفال مكتبة الطفلكتب تعلم اللغاتتورتة عيد الميلادمعاني الأسماءكتب اسلاميةكتابة أسماء عالصورمعاني الأسماءكتب الروايات والقصصكتابة على تورتة مناسبات وأعيادالكتب العامةالمساعدة بالعربيكتب قصص و رواياتOnline يوتيوبSwitzerland United Kingdom United States of Americaاصنع بنفسكالتنمية البشريةحروف توبيكات مزخرفة بالعربيبرمجة المواقعزخرفة الأسماءقراءة و تحميل الكتبالطب النبويخدماتكتابة على تورتة الخطوبةأسمك عالتورته زخرفة أسامي و أسماء و حروف..كتب السياسة والقانونكتب الطبخ و المطبخ و الديكوركورسات مجانيةحكمةاقتباسات ملخصات كتب