❞ كتاب The Neat Summary of Linguistics ❝  ⏤ Raymond Hickey

❞ كتاب The Neat Summary of Linguistics ❝ ⏤ Raymond Hickey

The Neat Summary of Linguistics
Table of Contents Page
I Language in perspective 3
1 Introduction 3
2 On the origins of language 4
3 Characterising language 4
4 Structural notions in linguistics 4
4.1 Talking about language and linguistic data 6
5 The grammatical core 6
6 Linguistic levels 6
7 Areas of linguistics 7
II The levels of linguistics 8
1 Phonetics and phonology 8
1.1 Syllable structure 10
1.2 American phonetic transcription 10
1.3 Alphabets and sound systems 12
2 Morphology 13
3 Lexicology 13
4 Syntax 14
4.1 Phrase structure grammar 15
4.2 Deep and surface structure 15
4.3 Transformations 16
4.4 The standard theory 16
5 Semantics 17
6 Pragmatics 18
III Areas and applications 20
1 Sociolinguistics 20
2 Variety studies 20
3 Corpus linguistics 21
4 Language and gender 21
5 Language acquisition 22
6 Language and the brain 23
7 Contrastive linguistics 23
8 Anthropological linguistics 24
IV Language change 25
1 Linguistic schools and language change 26
2 Language contact and language change 26
3 Language typology 27
V Linguistic theory 28
VI Review of linguistics 28
1 Basic distinctions and definitions 28
2 Linguistic levels 29
3 Areas of linguistics 31
VII A brief chronology of English 33
1 External history 33
1.1 The Germanic languages 33
1.2 The settlement of Britain 34
1.3 Chronological summary 36
2 Internal history 37
2.1 Periods in the development of English 37
2.2 Old English 37
2.3 Middle English 38
2.4 Early Modern English




1 Introduction

The goalof linguistics is to provide valid analyses of language structure. Linguistic theory isconcerned with establishing a coherent set of independent principles to explain phenomena inlanguage.There are no primitivelanguages. Each language is adapted for the community which speaks it,be this industrialised or not.Onomatopoeiais not a major principle in language although symbols (icons) may be present on amore abstract level.There is no such thing as correctlanguage in any absolute sense. Language is neutraland shouldnot be the object of value judgements. Lay people tend to confuse language and attitudes to thosewho use language.Writtenlanguage is secondaryand derived from spoken language. Despite its status in westernsocieties, written language is only of marginal interest to the linguist.Linguistics is a sciencealthough the evidence for assumptions about the structure of language isnever direct. Linguists are more concerned with designing valid and general models of linguisticstructure rather with than searching for proof in any strictly empirical sense.Language consists largely of ruleswhich determine its use. There are, however, manyexceptions. Native speakers can deal with a large amount of irregularitywhich is stored in thementallexicon. Raymond Hickey - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Phonetics and phonology ❝ ❞ The Neat Summary of Linguistics ❝ ❞ Phonetics_and_Phonology ❝ ❱
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نُبذة عن الكتاب:
The Neat Summary of Linguistics

2017م - 1442هـ
The Neat Summary of Linguistics
Table of Contents Page
I Language in perspective 3
1 Introduction 3
2 On the origins of language 4
3 Characterising language 4
4 Structural notions in linguistics 4
4.1 Talking about language and linguistic data 6
5 The grammatical core 6
6 Linguistic levels 6
7 Areas of linguistics 7
II The levels of linguistics 8
1 Phonetics and phonology 8
1.1 Syllable structure 10
1.2 American phonetic transcription 10
1.3 Alphabets and sound systems 12
2 Morphology 13
3 Lexicology 13
4 Syntax 14
4.1 Phrase structure grammar 15
4.2 Deep and surface structure 15
4.3 Transformations 16
4.4 The standard theory 16
5 Semantics 17
6 Pragmatics 18
III Areas and applications 20
1 Sociolinguistics 20
2 Variety studies 20
3 Corpus linguistics 21
4 Language and gender 21
5 Language acquisition 22
6 Language and the brain 23
7 Contrastive linguistics 23
8 Anthropological linguistics 24
IV Language change 25
1 Linguistic schools and language change 26
2 Language contact and language change 26
3 Language typology 27
V Linguistic theory 28
VI Review of linguistics 28
1 Basic distinctions and definitions 28
2 Linguistic levels 29
3 Areas of linguistics 31
VII A brief chronology of English 33
1 External history 33
1.1 The Germanic languages 33
1.2 The settlement of Britain 34
1.3 Chronological summary 36
2 Internal history 37
2.1 Periods in the development of English 37
2.2 Old English 37
2.3 Middle English 38
2.4 Early Modern English




1 Introduction

The goalof linguistics is to provide valid analyses of language structure. Linguistic theory isconcerned with establishing a coherent set of independent principles to explain phenomena inlanguage.There are no primitivelanguages. Each language is adapted for the community which speaks it,be this industrialised or not.Onomatopoeiais not a major principle in language although symbols (icons) may be present on amore abstract level.There is no such thing as correctlanguage in any absolute sense. Language is neutraland shouldnot be the object of value judgements. Lay people tend to confuse language and attitudes to thosewho use language.Writtenlanguage is secondaryand derived from spoken language. Despite its status in westernsocieties, written language is only of marginal interest to the linguist.Linguistics is a sciencealthough the evidence for assumptions about the structure of language isnever direct. Linguists are more concerned with designing valid and general models of linguisticstructure rather with than searching for proof in any strictly empirical sense.Language consists largely of ruleswhich determine its use. There are, however, manyexceptions. Native speakers can deal with a large amount of irregularitywhich is stored in thementallexicon.
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[5]

Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning

Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language. These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences). Many modern theories that deal with the principles of grammar are based on Noam Chomsky's framework of generative linguistics.]

In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language. This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance in his theory of transformative or generative grammar. According to Chomsky, competence is an individual's innate capacity and potential for language (like in Saussure's langue), while performance is the specific way in which it is used by individuals, groups, and communities (i.e., parole, in Saussurean term

The Neat Summary of Linguistics
Table of Contents Page
I Language in perspective 3
1 Introduction 3
2 On the origins of language 4
3 Characterising language 4
4 Structural notions in linguistics 4
4.1 Talking about language and linguistic data 6
5 The grammatical core 6
6 Linguistic levels 6
7 Areas of linguistics 7
II The levels of linguistics 8
1 Phonetics and phonology 8
1.1 Syllable structure 10
1.2 American phonetic transcription 10
1.3 Alphabets and sound systems 12
2 Morphology 13
3 Lexicology 13
4 Syntax 14
4.1 Phrase structure grammar 15
4.2 Deep and surface structure 15
4.3 Transformations 16
4.4 The standard theory 16
5 Semantics 17
6 Pragmatics 18
III Areas and applications 20
1 Sociolinguistics 20
2 Variety studies 20
3 Corpus linguistics 21
4 Language and gender 21
5 Language acquisition 22
6 Language and the brain 23
7 Contrastive linguistics 23
8 Anthropological linguistics 24
IV Language change 25
1 Linguistic schools and language change 26
2 Language contact and language change 26
3 Language typology 27
V Linguistic theory 28
VI Review of linguistics 28
1 Basic distinctions and definitions 28
2 Linguistic levels 29
3 Areas of linguistics 31
VII A brief chronology of English 33
1 External history 33
1.1 The Germanic languages 33
1.2 The settlement of Britain 34
1.3 Chronological summary 36
2 Internal history 37
2.1 Periods in the development of English 37
2.2 Old English 37
2.3 Middle English 38
2.4 Early Modern English

5 Language acquisition 226 Language and the brain 237 Contrastive linguistics 238 Anthropological linguistics 24IV Language change251 Linguistic schools and language change 262 Language contact and language change 263 Language typology 27V Linguistic theory28VI Review of linguistics281 Basic distinctions and definitions 282 Linguistic levels 293 Areas of linguistics 31VII A brief chronology of English331 External history 331.1 The Germanic languages 331.2 The settlement of Britain 341.3 Chronological summary 362 Internal history 372.1 Periods in the development of English 372.2 Old English 372.3 Middle English 382.4 Early Modern English 40Raymond Hickey The Neat Summary of LinguisticsPage 2 of 40
 

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سنة النشر : 2017م / 1438هـ .
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كتب Raymond Hickey ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Phonetics and phonology ❝ ❞ The Neat Summary of Linguistics ❝ ❞ Phonetics_and_Phonology ❝ ❱. المزيد..

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