📘 قراءة كتاب Introduction to English Linguistics A Companion to the Seminar (Revised and Abridged) أونلاين
هذا يحتوي يحتوى علي معلومات خاصة بعلم اللغويات
هي علم يهتم بدراسة اللغات الإنسانية ودراسة خصائصها وتراكيبها ودرجات التشابه والتباين فيما بينها.و يدرس اللغة من كل جوانبها دراسة شاملة.
أما اللغوي فهو الشخص الذي يقوم بهذه الدراسة. ظهرت اللسانيات الحديثة في القرن 19م، لكنها كعلم قديمة قدم الإنسان. جاءت بفكرة رئيسة مع العالم فرديناند دو سوسور فمع علمنة الثورة الصناعية أراد علمنة اللغة أيضا في كتابه /محاضرات في اللسانيات العامة/ فاللغة عنده تحمل هويات من قيم الدين، والمحيط، والثقافة، والفكر الفلسفي.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning
Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language. These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences). Many modern theories that deal with the principles of grammar are based on Noam Chomsky's framework of generative linguistics.]
In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics. According to him, parole is the specific utterance of speech, whereas langue refers to an abstract phenomenon that theoretically defines the principles and system of rules that govern a language. This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance in his theory of transformative or generative grammar. According to Chomsky, competence is an individual's innate capacity and potential for language (like in Saussure's langue), while performance is the specific way in which it is used by individuals, groups, and communities (i.e., parole, in Saussurean term
The seminar called Introduction to English Linguistics is offered in English to
first year students in weekly sessions. Since for most students this seminar is
the only place where the topics of the course are discussed in English, teachers
of this seminar often have to explain the material to their students before (or
instead of!) doing exercises or discussing problems, and so a considerable part
of precious seminar time is wasted on lecturing.
The present book offers a solution. It contains ten units: each discusses
an important topic in English and each is followed by exercises. Thus it
provides ample seminar material for about 12 weeks. Some of the units may be
curtailed or even omitted at the teacher’s discretion.
The units should be assigned for home study before the actual seminar
session at which they will be discussed. Thus the students will have an
opportunity to get acquainted with the main ideas and the special English
vocabulary of each topic before coming to the seminar, and this frees their
tutors from having to lecture during the seminar, enabling them to concentrate
on discussion and practical problem-solving activities.
I hope both students and teachers of the Introduction to English
Linguistics seminar will find this book a useful companion to the course. If for
any topic further reading is required, I recommend the relevant chapters of
Fromkin, V. & R. Rodman (1998) An Introduction to Language. 6th ed. (Fort
Worth, etc.: Harcourt Brace College Publishers), or Radford, A., M. Atkinson,
D. Britain, H. Clahsen & A. Spencer (1999) Linguistics, An Introduction.
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سنة النشر : 2010م / 1431هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 0.5MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
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