📘 قراءة رواية All the King's Men أونلاين
هذا القسم يحتوي علي العديد من القصص والروايات باللغة الإنجليزية
(Stories and novels) القصص والروايات
الرواية هي سرد نثري طويل يصف شخصيات خيالية أو واقعية وأحداثاً على شكل قصة متسلسلة، كما أنها أكبر الأجناس القصصية من حيث الحجم وتعدد الشخصيات وتنوع الأحداث، وقد ظهرت في أوروبا بوصفها جنساً أدبياً مؤثراً في القرن الثامن عشر، والرواية حكاية تعتمد السرد بما فيه من وصف وحوار وصراع بين الشخصيات وما ينطوي عليه ذلك من تأزم وجدل وتغذيه الأحداث
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally written in prose form, and which is typically published as a book. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which (as he saw it) "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse; the interest of which turns upon marvellous and uncommon incidents". However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are also frequently called novels, and Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance or romance novel
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood.
A dictionary definition is "an invented prose narrative shorter than a novel usually dealing with a few characters and aiming at unity of effect and often concentrating on the creation of mood rather than plot."
The short story is a crafted form in its own right. Short stories make use of plot, resonance, and other dynamic components as in a novel, but typically to a lesser degree. While the short story is largely distinct from the novel or novella (a shorter novel), authors generally draw from a common pool of literary techniques.
All the King's Men
In a recent publication Thierry Petit has examined the story of Cyrus and Orontas in
Xenophon Anabasis 1.6.1-11, detected a ritual expressive of subordination, associated that
subordination with the term bandaka, and elaborated a parallel with mediaeval homage
To test his account of the episode and its implications I shall consider the evidence
for ceremonial procedure, examine bandaka and certain other Iranian and non-Iranian
words, and assess the impact of the mediaeval analogy.2
I do not pretend to provide an
exhaustive account of all the issues raised by Petit’s stimulating paper, and what follows is a
dogmatic report on what I believe to be demonstrable rather than a thoroughly documented
There are three phases in the story.3
Phase 1 Darius II gives Orontas to Cyrus as hupekoos
(subordinate). Orontas then fights Cyrus at Artaxerxes II’s behest4
using the Sardis acropolis
as base (Xenophon Anabasis 1.6.6). Phase 2 Cyrus and Orontas exchange dexiai (hand-shakes)
at end of that conflict. Orontas then revolts and damages Cyrus’ land from a base in Mysia
(ibid. 1.6.6-7). Phase 3 Cyrus and Orontas exchange pista (pledges) after Orontas has come to
the altar of Artemis at Sardis and persuaded Cyrus that he has repented (ibid.1.6.7). But
Orontas then tries to defect during Cyrus’ march on Babylon (ibid. 1.6.1-3, 8). Our key text is
Xenophon’s account of the trial and execution of Orontas following this third act of
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