❞ كتاب A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION ❝  ⏤ Peter Newmark

❞ كتاب A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION ❝ ⏤ Peter Newmark

A TEXTBOOK OF
TRANSLATION


This book has been five years in the writing. Sections of it have twice been stolen
during travel and have been rewritten, hopeniliy better than the first time - the fond
hope of ail writers who have had their MSS lost, stolen or betrayed. Its 'progress' has
been further interrupted by requests for papers for conferences; four of these papers
have been incorporated; others, listed in the bibliography are too specialised for
inclusion here. It is not a conventional textbook. Instead of offering, as originally
planned, texts in various languages for you to translate, I have supplied in the
appendices examples of translational text analyses, translations with commentaries and
translation criticism. They are intended to be helpful illustrations of many points made
in the book, and models for you to react against when you do these three stimulating
types of exercise.
If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its
various theories are only generalisations of translation practices. The points I make are
for you to endorse or to reject, or simply think about.

Peter Newmark - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION ❝ الناشرين : ❞ Prentice Hall ❝ ❱
من الترجمة Translation كتب تعلم اللغة الإنجليزية - مكتبة كتب تعلم اللغات.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION

1988م - 1442هـ
A TEXTBOOK OF
TRANSLATION


This book has been five years in the writing. Sections of it have twice been stolen
during travel and have been rewritten, hopeniliy better than the first time - the fond
hope of ail writers who have had their MSS lost, stolen or betrayed. Its 'progress' has
been further interrupted by requests for papers for conferences; four of these papers
have been incorporated; others, listed in the bibliography are too specialised for
inclusion here. It is not a conventional textbook. Instead of offering, as originally
planned, texts in various languages for you to translate, I have supplied in the
appendices examples of translational text analyses, translations with commentaries and
translation criticism. They are intended to be helpful illustrations of many points made
in the book, and models for you to react against when you do these three stimulating
types of exercise.
If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its
various theories are only generalisations of translation practices. The points I make are
for you to endorse or to reject, or simply think about.


.
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

هذا القسم يحتوى علي كل ما يخص الترجمة وعلومها

التَّرْجَمَة أو النَّقْل هي عملية تحويل نص أصلي مكتوب (ويسمى النص المصدر) من اللغة المصدر إلى نص مكتوب (النص الهدف) في اللغة الأخرى. فتعد الترجمة نقل للحضارة والثقافة والفكر.

تنقسم الترجمة إلى ترجمة كتابية وتحريرية ونصية وترجمة فورية وشفوية وسماعية.

لا تكون الترجمة في الأساس مجرد نقل كل كلمة بما يقابلها في اللغة الهدف ولكن نقل لقواعد اللغة التي توصل المعلومة ونقل للمعلومة ذاتها ونقل لفكر الكاتب وثقافته وأسلوبه أيضاً، لكن اختلفت النظريات في الترجمة على كيف تنقل هذه المعلومات من المصدر إلى الهدف، فوصف جورج ستاينر نظرية ثالوث الترجمة: الحرفية (أو الكلمة بالكلمة) والحرة (الدلالة بالدلالة) والترجمة الأمينة.

وتعتبر الترجمة فناً مستقلاً بذاته حيث أنه يعتمد على الإبداع والحس اللغوي والقدرة على تقريب الثقافات وهو يمكن جميع البشرية من التواصل والاستفادة من خبرات بعضهم البعض. فهي فن قديم قدم الأدب المكتوب. فقد تم ترجمة أجزاء من ملحمة جلجامش السومرية، من بين أقدم الأعمال الأدبية المعروفة، إلى عدة لغات آسيوية منذ الألفية الثانية قبل الميلاد.

ومع ظهور الحواسب، جرت محاولات لاستخدام الحاسوب أو ترجمة النصوص من اللغة الطبيعية بالترجمة الآلية أو لاستخدام الحاسوب كوسيلة مساعدة للترجمة، الترجمة بمساعدة الحاسوب.
Translation is the communication of the meaning of a source-language text by means of an equivalent target-language text. The English language draws a terminological distinction (not all languages do) between translating (a written text) and interpreting (oral or sign-language communication between users of different languages); under this distinction, translation can begin only after the appearance of writing within a language community.

A translator always risks inadvertently introducing source-language words, grammar, or syntax into the target-language rendering. On the other hand, such "spill-overs" have sometimes imported useful source-language calques and loanwords that have enriched target languages. Translators, including early translators of sacred texts, have helped shape the very languages into which they have translated.]

Because of the laboriousness of the translation process, since the 1940s efforts have been made, with varying degrees of success, to automate translation or to mechanically aid the human translator. More recently, the rise of the Internet has fostered a world-wide market for translation services and has facilitated "language localization". 


Contents
1    Etymology
2    Theories
2.1    Western theory
2.2    Other traditions
2.2.1    Near East
2.2.2    Asia
2.2.3    Islamic world
3    Fidelity and transparency
3.1    Equivalence
3.2    Back-translation
4    Translators
4.1    Interpreting
4.2    Sworn translation
4.3    Telephone
4.4    Internet
4.5    Computer assist
5    Machine translation
6    Literary translation
6.1    History
6.2    Modern translation
6.3    Poetry
6.4    Book titles
6.5    Plays
6.6    Chinese literature
6.7    Sung texts
6.8    Religious texts
6.9    Science fiction
7    Technical translation

The English word "translation" derives from the Latin word translatio, which comes from trans, "across" + ferre, "to carry" or "to bring" (-latio in turn coming from latus, the past participle of ferre). Thus translatio is "a carrying across" or "a bringing across": in this case, of a text from one language to another.

Some Slavic languages and the Germanic languages (other than Dutch and Afrikaans) have calqued their words for the concept of "translation" on translatio.

The Romance languages and the remaining Slavic languages have derived their words for the concept of "translation" from an alternative Latin word, traductio, itself derived from traducere ("to lead across" or "to bring across", from trans, "across" + ducere, "to lead" or "to bring")]

The Ancient Greek term for "translation", μετάφρασις (metaphrasis, "a speaking across"), has supplied English with "metaphrase" (a "literal", or "word-for-word", translation)—as contrasted with "paraphrase" ("a saying in other words", from παράφρασις, paraphrasis). "Metaphrase" corresponds, in one of the more recent terminologies, to "formal equivalence"; and "paraphrase", to "dynamic equivalence".]

Strictly speaking, the concept of metaphrase—of "word-for-word translation"—is an imperfect concept, because a given word in a given language often carries more than one meaning; and because a similar given meaning may often be represented in a given language by more than one word. Nevertheless, "metaphrase" and "paraphrase" may be useful as ideal concepts that mark the extremes in the spectrum of possible approaches to translation

A TEXTBOOK OF
TRANSLATION


This book has been five years in the writing. Sections of it have twice been stolen
during travel and have been rewritten, hopeniliy better than the first time - the fond
hope of ail writers who have had their MSS lost, stolen or betrayed. Its 'progress' has
been further interrupted by requests for papers for conferences; four of these papers
have been incorporated; others, listed in the bibliography are too specialised for
inclusion here. It is not a conventional textbook. Instead of offering, as originally
planned, texts in various languages for you to translate, I have supplied in the
appendices examples of translational text analyses, translations with commentaries and
translation criticism. They are intended to be helpful illustrations of many points made
in the book, and models for you to react against when you do these three stimulating
types of exercise.
If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its
various theories are only generalisations of translation practices. The points I make are
for you to endorse or to reject, or simply think about.


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سنة النشر : 1988م / 1408هـ .
حجم الكتاب عند التحميل : 2.0MB .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
عداد القراءة: عدد قراءة A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION

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المؤلف:
Peter Newmark -

كتب Peter Newmark ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION ❝ الناشرين : ❞ Prentice Hall ❝ ❱. المزيد..

كتب Peter Newmark
الناشر:
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