❞ كتاب Public International Law ❝  ⏤ جديون بواس

❞ كتاب Public International Law ❝ ⏤ جديون بواس

THIS BOOK : The focus of this book is upon principles and perspectives in international law. International law is made up of a framework of broadly accepted principles from which rules are developed and applied. The status and precise nature of these principles vary depending upon the views of the states, courts, scholars or practitioners examining them. This does not mean that they necessarily lack certainty or clarity; rather, it refl ects the variegated nature of international law, lacking as it does a constitutional or parliamentary framework, and infused as it is with international politics.
 This book explains the content and structure of public international law and how it works. It critically examines what the law is, how it has evolved and is applied, and contemporary and future trends. In doing so, it will at times look beyond the legal to consider the political and other extralegal considerations that are an essential aspect of international law. This book does not, however, endeavour to exhaustively describe the entire international legal system. Thus there are no discrete chapters on the Law of the Sea, International Trade Law, Environmental Law, Humanitarian Law, Human Rights or International Criminal Law (although these will each be introduced later in this chapter 1). Rather, these areas of the practice of international law are examined in the context of the principle of international law under examination. For example, Chapter 5 considers individuals as subjects of international law and the rights and obligations that have accrued through the international human rights and criminal law regimes, in the context of non-state actors. Case studies and contemporary examples are infused in the discussion on a particular topic, and critical analysis and the prospective development of international law are given prominence. In this way, this book will provide 


هذا الكتاب: يركز هذا الكتاب على المبادئ ووجهات النظر في القانون الدولي. يتكون القانون الدولي من إطار من المبادئ المقبولة على نطاق واسع يتم من خلالها تطوير القواعد وتطبيقها. يختلف وضع هذه المبادئ وطبيعتها الدقيقة اعتمادًا على آراء الدول أو المحاكم أو العلماء أو الممارسين الذين يفحصونها. هذا لا يعني أنهم يفتقرون بالضرورة إلى اليقين أو الوضوح ؛ بدلاً من ذلك ، فهو يعكس الطبيعة المتنوعة للقانون الدولي ، ويفتقر إلى ذلك كما هو الحال في الإطار الدستوري أو البرلماني ، ويتم غرسه كما هو الحال في السياسة الدولية.
يشرح هذا الكتاب محتوى وهيكل القانون الدولي العام وكيف يعمل. إنه يبحث بشكل نقدي ما هو القانون ، وكيف تطورت وتطبق ، والاتجاهات المعاصرة والمستقبلية. في القيام بذلك ، سوف ننظر في بعض الأحيان إلى ما وراء القانونية للنظر في الاعتبارات السياسية وغيرها من الاعتبارات الخارجة عن القانون التي هي جانب أساسي من جوانب القانون الدولي. ومع ذلك ، لا يسعى هذا الكتاب إلى وصف النظام القانوني الدولي بأكمله بشكل شامل. وبالتالي ، لا توجد فصول منفصلة عن قانون البحار ، أو القانون التجاري الدولي ، أو القانون البيئي ، أو القانون الإنساني ، أو حقوق الإنسان ، أو القانون الجنائي الدولي (على الرغم من أنه سيتم تقديم كل فصل لاحقًا في هذا الفصل 1). بدلا من ذلك ، يتم فحص هذه المجالات من ممارسة القانون الدولي في سياق مبدأ القانون الدولي قيد الدراسة. على سبيل المثال ، يعتبر الفصل 5 الأفراد موضوعًا للقانون الدولي والحقوق والالتزامات المستحقة من خلال أنظمة حقوق الإنسان والقانون الجنائي الدولية ، في سياق الجهات الفاعلة غير الحكومية. يتم تناول دراسات الحالة والأمثلة المعاصرة في النقاش حول موضوع معين ، ويبرز التحليل النقدي والتطور المرتقب للقانون الدولي. بهذه الطريقة ، سوف يقدم هذا الكتاب
جديون بواس - ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Public International Law ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 8 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 7 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 14 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 1 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 3 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 12 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 15 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 16 ❝ الناشرين : ❞ جميع الحقوق محفوظة للمؤلف ❝ ❱
من كتب القانون باللغة الأنجليزية English Law Books - مكتبة كتب علوم سياسية و قانونية.

نُبذة عن الكتاب:
Public International Law

2012م - 1442هـ
THIS BOOK : The focus of this book is upon principles and perspectives in international law. International law is made up of a framework of broadly accepted principles from which rules are developed and applied. The status and precise nature of these principles vary depending upon the views of the states, courts, scholars or practitioners examining them. This does not mean that they necessarily lack certainty or clarity; rather, it refl ects the variegated nature of international law, lacking as it does a constitutional or parliamentary framework, and infused as it is with international politics.
 This book explains the content and structure of public international law and how it works. It critically examines what the law is, how it has evolved and is applied, and contemporary and future trends. In doing so, it will at times look beyond the legal to consider the political and other extralegal considerations that are an essential aspect of international law. This book does not, however, endeavour to exhaustively describe the entire international legal system. Thus there are no discrete chapters on the Law of the Sea, International Trade Law, Environmental Law, Humanitarian Law, Human Rights or International Criminal Law (although these will each be introduced later in this chapter 1). Rather, these areas of the practice of international law are examined in the context of the principle of international law under examination. For example, Chapter 5 considers individuals as subjects of international law and the rights and obligations that have accrued through the international human rights and criminal law regimes, in the context of non-state actors. Case studies and contemporary examples are infused in the discussion on a particular topic, and critical analysis and the prospective development of international law are given prominence. In this way, this book will provide 


هذا الكتاب: يركز هذا الكتاب على المبادئ ووجهات النظر في القانون الدولي. يتكون القانون الدولي من إطار من المبادئ المقبولة على نطاق واسع يتم من خلالها تطوير القواعد وتطبيقها. يختلف وضع هذه المبادئ وطبيعتها الدقيقة اعتمادًا على آراء الدول أو المحاكم أو العلماء أو الممارسين الذين يفحصونها. هذا لا يعني أنهم يفتقرون بالضرورة إلى اليقين أو الوضوح ؛ بدلاً من ذلك ، فهو يعكس الطبيعة المتنوعة للقانون الدولي ، ويفتقر إلى ذلك كما هو الحال في الإطار الدستوري أو البرلماني ، ويتم غرسه كما هو الحال في السياسة الدولية.
يشرح هذا الكتاب محتوى وهيكل القانون الدولي العام وكيف يعمل. إنه يبحث بشكل نقدي ما هو القانون ، وكيف تطورت وتطبق ، والاتجاهات المعاصرة والمستقبلية. في القيام بذلك ، سوف ننظر في بعض الأحيان إلى ما وراء القانونية للنظر في الاعتبارات السياسية وغيرها من الاعتبارات الخارجة عن القانون التي هي جانب أساسي من جوانب القانون الدولي. ومع ذلك ، لا يسعى هذا الكتاب إلى وصف النظام القانوني الدولي بأكمله بشكل شامل. وبالتالي ، لا توجد فصول منفصلة عن قانون البحار ، أو القانون التجاري الدولي ، أو القانون البيئي ، أو القانون الإنساني ، أو حقوق الإنسان ، أو القانون الجنائي الدولي (على الرغم من أنه سيتم تقديم كل فصل لاحقًا في هذا الفصل 1). بدلا من ذلك ، يتم فحص هذه المجالات من ممارسة القانون الدولي في سياق مبدأ القانون الدولي قيد الدراسة. على سبيل المثال ، يعتبر الفصل 5 الأفراد موضوعًا للقانون الدولي والحقوق والالتزامات المستحقة من خلال أنظمة حقوق الإنسان والقانون الجنائي الدولية ، في سياق الجهات الفاعلة غير الحكومية. يتم تناول دراسات الحالة والأمثلة المعاصرة في النقاش حول موضوع معين ، ويبرز التحليل النقدي والتطور المرتقب للقانون الدولي. بهذه الطريقة ، سوف يقدم هذا الكتاب .
المزيد..

تعليقات القرّاء:

Preface xiv
List of abbreviations xvi
List of selected cases xviii
1 International law: history, theory and purpose 1
1.1 The approach to international law in this book 1
1.2 The concept of international law 2
1.3 The place of international law in history 2
1.3.1 The ancient roots of international law 4
1.3.2 The Peace of Westphalia and the development of
modern international law 8
1.4 Theories of international law 10
1.4.1 The framework for international law and the
importance of norms 10
1.4.2 Diff erent theoretical conceptions of international law 12
1.4.2.1 Natural and positive law theories 12
1.4.2.2 Relationship between international relations,
international law, and diff erent theories of
international law 17
1.4.2.2.1 Realism and liberalism 18
1.4.2.2.1.1 Realism 18
1.4.2.2.1.2 Liberalism 19
1.4.2.2.1.3 Realism and liberalism as alternatives 20
1.4.2.2.1.4 Constructivism 20
1.4.2.2.2 Post-Cold War 21
1.4.2.2.3 Marxist theory 22
1.4.2.2.4 Critical legal studies 23
1.4.2.2.5 Third World theory 25
1.4.2.2.6 Feminist theory 26
1.5 Specialist areas of international law 27
1.5.1 The international law of the sea 27
1.5.2 International trade law 30
1.5.3 International environmental law 31
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vi Public international law
1.5.4 International humanitarian law 33
1.5.5 International human rights law 34
1.5.6 International criminal law 36
1.6 What is international law? 38
2 International law-making: the sources of international law 45
2.1 The source of obligation in international law 46
2.1.1 Derivation of the sources of international law and the
question of hierarchy 46
2.1.2 The consensual basis of international law 49
2.1.3 The obligatory nature of international law 50
2.1.4 Fragmentation: the relevance of normative
frameworks given the proliferation of sui generis areas
of international law 51
2.2 Article 38(1) ICJ Statute 52
2.2.1 International conventions: the law of treaties 53
2.2.1.1 The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and
its customary status 53
2.2.1.2 Formation 54
2.2.1.2.1 Intention to create international legal relations 54
2.2.1.2.2 Consent to be bound 56
2.2.1.2.3 Pacta sunt servanda and entry into force 58
2.2.1.2.4 Objects of treaties – jus cogens and third states 59
2.2.1.3 Amendment and modifi cation 60
2.2.1.4 Reservations 61
2.2.1.5 Interpretation 63
2.2.1.6 Invalidity 65
2.2.1.7 Termination and suspension 67
2.2.1.8 Some contemporary issues in treaty law 71
2.2.1.8.1 Codifi cation and progressive development of
international law: the role of multilateral treaties 71
2.2.2 Customary international law 73
2.2.2.1 The origins and dynamic nature of international
custom 73
2.2.2.2 State practice: the fi rst element of custom 75
2.2.2.2.1 Consistency of state practice 75
2.2.2.2.2 Kinds of state practice – acts, omissions and
acquiescence 77
2.2.2.2.3 Quantity of state practice 79
2.2.2.3 Opinio juris: the second element of custom 80
2.2.2.3.1 General sources of evidence of opinio juris 80
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Contents vii
2.2.2.3.2 Treaty obligations as evidence of opinio juris 84
2.2.2.3.3 UN General Assembly resolutions as evidence of
opinio juris 86
2.2.2.4 Challenges to the traditional elements of custom 89
2.2.2.5 Treatment by international courts and tribunals 91
2.2.2.6 The persistent objector exception 93
2.2.2.7 Jus cogens 95
2.2.2.8 Erga omnes obligations 101
2.2.2.9 Regional custom 102
2.2.3 General principles of law 105
2.2.3.1 The nature and role of general principles of law 105
2.2.3.2 The identifi cation of general principles by
international courts and tribunals 108
2.2.3.3 Non liquet in international law 109
2.2.4 Judicial decisions and highly regarded publicists –
subsidiary sources 110
2.2.4.1 Judicial decisions 110
2.2.4.1.1 No precedent in international law: Article 59 ICJ
Statute 110
2.2.4.1.2 A de facto normative system of precedent at
international law? 112
2.2.4.2 Writings of publicists 114
2.3 Conclusions 115
3 The relationship between international and national law 119
3.1 Diff erent conceptions of the relationship between
international and national law 120
3.1.1 Dualism 120
3.1.2 Monism 121
3.1.3 An alternative approach 122
3.2 National law in international law 123
3.2.1 International law is supreme in its domain 123
3.2.2 The application of national law within international
law 124
3.2.3 Use of national law by international tribunals to
resolve disputes 125
3.2.4 Use of national law to resolve a state’s position on a
question of international law 129
3.3 International law in national law 132
3.4 Diff erent approaches to the implementation of international
law in national law 136
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viii Public international law
3.4.1 Transformation 136
3.4.2 Incorporation 137
3.4.3 The implementation of customary international law
into national law 138
3.4.3.1 Common law states 138
3.4.3.1.1 The United Kingdom 138
3.4.3.1.2 The United States 141
3.4.3.1.3 Australia 143
3.4.3.2 Civil law states 144
3.4.3.2.1 Italy, Germany and Japan 144
3.4.3.2.2 Portugal and the Netherlands 145
3.4.3.3 Contemporary developments: growing constitutional
recognition of the primacy of customary
international law 145
3.4.4 The implementation of treaty law into national law 146
3.4.4.1 Common law states 147
3.4.4.1.1 The United Kingdom 147
3.4.4.1.2 The United States 148
3.4.4.1.3 Australia 149
3.4.4.2 Civil law states 151
3.4.4.2.1 Germany 151
3.4.4.2.2 Japan 151
3.4.4.2.3 The Netherlands 151
3.4.4.3 Contemporary developments: automatic
incorporation of treaty law into domestic law 152
3.5 Conclusions 153
4 The subjects of international law: states 155
4.1 The nature of the personality of states in international law 157
4.2 Sovereignty 158
4.3 Traditional criteria for statehood 161
4.3.1 First criterion: permanent population 162
4.3.2 Second criterion: territory 163
4.3.3 Third criterion: government 165
4.3.4 Fourth criterion: capacity to enter into legal
relations 167
4.4 Recognition 168
4.4.1 Political recognition of statehood 169
4.4.2 Declaratory and constitutive theories of recognition 172
4.4.3 De facto and de jure recognition 173
4.4.4 Current recognition practice 174
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Contents ix
4.5 Contemporary developments and the role of other criteria in
the development of statehood 176
4.5.1 Willingness to observe international law and
fundamental rights 176
4.6 The principle of territorial sovereignty 180
4.6.1 Territory, title and sovereignty 181
4.6.2 The role of territorial sovereignty 182
4.6.3 Territory and the state 183
4.6.4 The acquisition of territorial sovereignty 184
4.6.5 The former modes of acquisition 185
4.6.5.1 Accretion 185
4.6.5.2 Cession 186
4.6.5.3 Occupation 186
4.6.5.4 Prescription 187
4.6.5.5 Subjugation 188
4.6.6 Departure from the traditional modes of acquisition –
guiding principles 189
4.6.6.1 Relativity of title 189
4.6.6.2 Inter-temporal law and critical dates 190
4.6.6.3 Continued and eff ective occupation and
administration 191
4.6.6.4 Changing values in the international community and
the principle of stability 191
4.7 Scope of territorial sovereignty 192
4.8 Future directions in territorial sovereignty 193
4.9 Peoples and self-determination 194
4.9.1 Development of the principle of self-determination 195
4.9.1.1 Self-determination up to the Second World War 195
4.9.1.2 The UN Charter and Resolutions 197
4.9.2 Decolonization and uti possidetis 199
4.9.3 Recent developments 200
4.9.4 Self-determination and recognition in the current
climate 203
4.10 Conclusions 204
5 Other subjects of international law: non-state actors and
international law’s evolution 207
5.1 International organizations 209
5.1.1 The United Nations 211
5.1.1.1 Organs and functions of the United Nations 211
5.1.1.1.1 The General Assembly 213
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x Public international law
5.1.1.1.2 The Security Council 213
5.1.1.1.3 The Economic and Social Council 216
5.1.1.1.4 The Trusteeship Council 217
5.1.1.1.5 The International Court of Justice 217
5.1.1.1.6 The Secretariat 219
5.1.1.2 International personality of the United Nations 220
5.2 Non-governmental organizations: the growing place of civil
society in international law 225
5.3 Individuals: the rupture of state-centric international
law? 229
5.3.1 International duties of individuals 230
5.3.1.1 Individual criminal responsibility 231
5.3.2 International rights of individuals 234
5.3.2.1 Human rights 235
5.4 Corporations 237
5.5 Some other non-state actors 241
5.6 Conclusions 242
6 Jurisdiction privileges and immunities 244
6.1 Types of jurisdiction: prescription and enforcement 246
6.1.1 Prescriptive jurisdiction 246
6.1.2 Enforcement jurisdiction 247
6.2 Civil and criminal jurisdiction 248
6.3 Bases of jurisdiction 250
6.3.1 Territorial principle 251
6.3.1.1 The eff ects doctrine 254
6.3.2 Nationality principle 255
6.3.3 Protective principle 256
6.3.4 Passive personality principle 257
6.3.5 Universal jurisdiction 258
6.3.5.1 Crimes at customary international law 259
6.3.5.2 Treaties providing for ‘universal jurisdiction’: aut
dedere aut judicare 262
6.3.5.3 True universal jurisdiction 263
6.3.5.4 Illegal apprehension of accused 265
6.3.6 The Alien Tort Claims Statute 266
6.4 Extradition 266
6.5 Immunity from jurisdiction 268
6.5.1 Origins: the doctrine of absolute sovereign immunity 268
6.5.2 The restrictive or qualifi ed sovereign immunity
doctrine 270
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Contents xi
6.5.3 The nature test 271
6.5.4 Functional immunity 272
6.5.4.1 The scope of functional immunity 273
6.5.4.2 Personal status immunity 275
6.5.4.2.1 Diplomatic and consular immunity 276
6.6 Conclusions 278
7 State responsibility 280
7.1 The ILC Articles and the changing discourse of state
responsibility 281
7.1.1 The long road to codifi cation 281
7.1.2 Signifi cance of the Articles 282
7.2 Internationally wrongful acts 283
7.3 The rules of attribution 284
7.3.1 State organs 284
7.3.2 Governmental authority 285
7.3.3 Instructions, direction or control 287
7.3.4 Adoption and insurrection movements 289
7.3.5 Derived responsibility 290
7.3.6 Lex specialis 291
7.4 Circumstances precluding wrongfulness 292
7.4.1 Consent 292
7.4.2 Self-defence 293
7.4.3 Force majeure 293
7.4.4 Distress 294
7.4.5 Necessity 294
7.5 Consequences of breach 296
7.5.1 Cessation 296
7.5.2 Assurances and guarantees of non-repetition 297
7.5.3 Reparations 297
7.5.4 Restitution 299
7.5.5 Compensation 299
7.5.6 Satisfaction 300
7.6 Invocation of state responsibility 301
7.6.1 The injured state 301
7.6.2 The non-injured state 302
7.6.3 Plurality of injured or responsible states 303
7.6.4 Countermeasures 303
7.7 The state’s diplomatic protection over its natural and juristic
persons 304
7.8 Conclusions 306
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xii Public international law
8 International law and the use of force 307
8.1 Development of the law on the use of force in international
law 308
8.1.1 Early attempts to regulate the use of force 308
8.1.2 Early religious doctrines 309
8.1.3 The Age of Enlightenment 309
8.1.4 Early twentieth century 310
8.1.5 The League of Nations 311
8.2 The United Nations and the post-war system of collective
security 313
8.2.1 The meaning of ‘force’ and ‘threat of force’ 313
8.2.2 The meaning of ‘against the territorial integrity or
political independence’ 315
8.3 Invitation and intervention 316
8.3.1 Non-international armed confl icts 316
8.3.2 Delivery of humanitarian aid 317
8.3.3 Regional peacekeeping and enforcement actions 319
8.4 Humanitarian intervention 320
8.4.1 Sovereignty and humanitarian intervention 321
8.4.2 Legitimacy and the future of humanitarian
intervention 325
8.5 Exception to the rule: self-defence and collective self-defence 326
8.5.1 Development of self-defence 326
8.5.2 Self-defence under the UN Charter 327
8.5.3 Collective self-defence 331
8.5.4 Status of anticipatory self-defence 333
8.5.5 Self-defence and pre-emption 334
8.6 Exception to the rule: Chapter VII authority of the Security
Council 335
8.6.1 Responsibility to protect 338
8.7 Conclusions 340
9 Pacifi c resolution of disputes 343
9.1 The legal framework 343
9.2 Non-judicial settlement procedures (non-binding) 344
9.2.1 Negotiation 344
9.2.2 Inquiry 345
9.2.3 Good offi ces 346
9.2.4 Mediation and conciliation 347
9.2.5 The general role of the United Nations 347
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Contents xiii
9.3 International arbitration (binding) 348
9.3.1 Diplomatic protection: admissibility of state claims 349
9.4 International tribunals (binding) 351
9.4.1 WTO Appellate Body 352
9.4.2 International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea 352
9.4.3 International Criminal Court 353
9.4.4 Human rights mechanisms 354
9.5 International Court of Justice 355
9.5.1 Procedure and practice: admissibility and organization 355
9.5.2 Role and jurisdiction 356
9.5.2.1 Applicable law and general jurisdiction 356
9.5.2.2 Preliminary considerations 357
9.5.2.3 Contentious jurisdiction 358
9.5.2.3.1 Special agreements 358
9.5.2.3.2 Forum prorogatum 359
9.5.2.3.3 Treaties providing jurisdiction 360
9.5.2.3.4 Optional clause 360
9.5.3 Terminating a declaration 361
9.5.4 Provisional measures 362
9.5.5 Remedies and enforcement 363
9.5.6 Advisory Opinions 364
9.6 Conclusions 365
Index 367
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 xiv
Preface
Dame Rosalyn Higgins wrote of her invitation to teach the General
Course in International Law at the Hague Academy in 1991: ‘Can there
really be anything new or interesting still to say, or is not all wisdom
and scholarship already gathered in the Collected General Courses?’1
Given her achievements and status as a scholar of international law
even then, one might consider it folly to ever endeavour to write comprehensively on the topic of public international law. Of course, Higgins
did deliver the Course and publish her highly regarded Problems and
Process thereafter, and went on 

 

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سنة النشر : 2012م / 1433هـ .
نوع الكتاب : pdf.
عداد القراءة: عدد قراءة Public International Law

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المؤلف:
جديون بواس - gideon boas

كتب جديون بواس ❰ له مجموعة من المؤلفات أبرزها ❞ Public International Law ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 8 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 7 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 14 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 1 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 3 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 12 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 15 ❝ ❞ Public International Law Contemporary Principles and Perspectives text 16 ❝ الناشرين : ❞ جميع الحقوق محفوظة للمؤلف ❝ ❱. المزيد..

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